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Full text of "Federal Project One in Ohio"

WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION IN OHIO 

Dr« Carl Watson 
Admi ni strator 



>: Harry L« Hopkins, Federal Administrator 

HolgerCahlU, Director^ Federal Art Projects 
Nicolal Sokoloff^ Director, Federal Music Projects 
Hal lie Flanagan, Director, Federal Theater Projects 
Henry G. Alsberg, Director, Federal Writers' Projects 



A Report of Progress 



FEDERAL PROJECT ONE IN OH 10 



This Report of Progress on Federal Project One, prepared by the 
Writers f Project, has been reproduced by the multiLith process 
for the information of the people of Ohio, who have indicated 
their interest in the activities and progress of the Art, Music, 
Theater and Writers ' Projects.-^- James G, Dunton, State Director^ 
Writers' Projects. 



FEDERAL PROJECT ONE IN OHIO 
- Contents - 



Page 



I The Cultural Program of the 

Works Progress Administration 3 

I i Federal Art 5 

CI eve I and 5 

Toledo 9 

CI nci nnati II 

Dayton 12 

Columbus Ceramics Project 12 

II Federal Music 15 

Symphonic Groups 15 

Dance Orchestras 18 

Other Music Units 18 

National Music Week 20 

IV Federal Theatre 25 

Cleveland 25 

To I edo. . . c 28 

Dayton • 29 

Ci nci nnati 30 

Fall and Winter Plans • 31 

V Federal Writers* Projects 32 

The Ohio Guide 32 

The Survey of State and Local 

Historical Records 43 

VI The W.P.A. Cultural Program in Other States.... 46 

Wri ters' Projects 46 

Theat re. 46 

A rt 47 

Music Projects 48 



THE CULTURAL PROGRAM OF THE WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION 



Since autumn, 1935, the Works Progress Administration's program of cul- 
tural pro'jects, known collectively as Federal Project One, has served a very 
definite purpose - that of providing work compatible with the specialized a- 
birrties of unemployed men and v^omen who have had training or experience as 
artists^ musicians, writers, research workers, and in the theater arts. 

More than 40,000 workers throughout the nation - 1,500 inOhio - have 
been employed on the Federal Art, Music, Theater and Writers' Projects. These 
include writers, editors, actors, research workers, art ists, mus 1 clans, stage- 
hands, teachers, librarians, stage technicians, designers, clerical workers, 
playwrights and other types of professional and technical workers in the arts. 

Federal Music, employing forty per cent of the cultural workers, has 
demonstrated Its effectiveness In developing music appreciation in hundreds 
of communities throughout the country* Federal symphony, dance, choral and 
operatic groups have played for millions of Americans during the past eight 
months; and, in addition, the Music Education units have provided free music 
instruction for thousands of young people. 

The work of the five thousand Federal Art ^^P^oyees has been apparent in 
the murals decorating the walls of public Institutions, \n the fine examples 
of Individual creative work In pai nt i ng and scu I pture, and i h the many examples 
of applied art which have been prepared for local governmental, educational 
and scientific organizations* 

Under the Federal Theater program, more than twelve thousand unemployed 
theater workers have once more stepped back of the footlights, and notably ef- 
fective productions have been presented. Eminent critics have been almost un- 
animous In their support of such Theater project successes as The Living Mews- 
paper, Triple-A Ploughed Under and Class of ^2g. 

At the same time, nearly seven thousand writers, research workers and 
clerical assistants have been absorbed In the task of producing the American 
Guide, aslx-volume travel handbook, and conduct I ng a survey of state and local 
h istorical records. 

vV.P.Ao's Number One Project, off eri ng a nat lon-wl de cultural program. Is 
ui on ly provid Ing emp loyment .and training for re-employment; It Is also creat- 
ing and preserving works of enduring value; and It Is generating a wider ap- 
preciation of the arts throughout the nation. 

The following pages represent an effort to show. In part, what Federal 
Project One has done and is doing In Ohio. 




^Arabian lights," scene depicted for a Cleveland public school by a worker 

nr\ thf» Fftdftrai Art Project 



Art Pr^jc^t^ 



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Total (.mploijed = l32 



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Painters IVllllvvff 
Artists Iflll 

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^ I 9th rs lillf f III 



PE-DEH^flL aRT 



Federal Art Projects In Ohio, em- 
ploying approximately 155 artists work- 
ing on projects of every variety, are 
operat ing in five princ i pal c it ies: C I eve- 
land, Cincinnati, Columbus, Toledo and 
Dayton, 

These painters, photographers, 
mural designers, ceramics modelers and 
lithographers are contributing in con- 
crete form towards a program of commun- 
ity improvements, ut i I i tarian as we I I as 
decorative. 

CLEVELAND 

By far the largest number of art- 



- ists and projects, under the supervision 
of Carl W. Broemel, are located in Cleve- 
land. Here the FAP has made for itself 
a place in community service, and yet 
has remained more than a mere utility. 

Over a period of a year the Cleve- 
land projects have gradual ly bui It up a 
selected force of SSartlsans capable of 
manifold tasks. Among its present ac*- 
compi ishments may be listed expert litho- 
graphing, prec ise map-making, portraiture 
and novel sculpture. These activities 
have been carried on to meet the cltyVs 
tangible artistic needs; no trace of aim- 
less artistic wandering is to be found 
here. A majority of the workers are 



Workers on the 
Cleveland Federal 
Art Project com- 
pleting a 36- foot 
re lief map of 
C leve land, now 
exhibited at the 
Great Lakes Ex- 
pos i t ion. 




one-time commercial illustrators, but 
results prove that there are fine art- 
ists among them. The result is an in- 
clusive practical and cultural undertak- 
ing. 

Federal artists, working in close 
cooperation with such municipal depart- 
ments as Education, Library, Police, 
Health and Museums have been able to 
solve some of the latter's decorative 
and educational problenas and have de- 
veloped some heretofore unreal I zed possi- 
bl I ities. 

An example of the Project »s service 
to public agencies is found in the par- 
ti cu lar work now being done for the Board 
of Education: 

School authori t i es have I ong real- 
ized that many phases of instruction were 
i nsuff icient ly i I lust rated to strike home 
In youthful minds. It was also recog- 
nized that important works of art were 
i naccess ibietoschool child re n and stu- 
dents except upon infrequent visits to 
llbrari es and museums. The Board of Edu- 
cation consulted Federal Art officials 



and plans were drawn up to meet the re- 
quirements. These plans have resulted 
i n some nove I and amb 1 1 i ous but very use- 
ful undertakings. 

To help pub lie schoo I teachers make 
pupils more conscious of the city and its 
immediate environs, it was decided to 
make a series of graph ic maps. One gives 
a view of the metropolitan park system. 
Another I ocates important i nd us tries; 
still another shows municipal organiza- 
tion and utilities. Others portray viv- 
idly the cultural contributions of var- 
ious forei gn-born or forei gn-descent mi- 
norities wh ich are numerous in Cleveland. 

Detailed anatomical health charts 
and ingenious graphic presentations of 
astronomy form an important part of this 
"art for education" drive. One hundred 
sets of charts, showing ten major con— 
steJIations and the sky at various sea- 
sons are bei ng d rawn and I i thographed for 
the astronomy project alone. 

Perhaps the most important and 
notable service rendered public schools 
by the Art Project is one relating to 



traffic problems. Artists have recently 
compi eted a portable ml niature of a street 
intersection to be taken from school to 
school by a captain of po I ice for illus- 
tration of his safety I ectures* Pupils 
in lower grades wi I I actual ly be able to 
drive their toy veh ic les through the t i ny 
streets, learning through first-hand 
methods how to execute the different 
turns and what traffic cautions to ob- 
serve. <A/i th automobi le accidents a sig- 
nificant factor in our annual national 
death rate, the beneficial effects such 
t rai ni ng may have on the dri vers of the 
future becomes read! I y apparent . 

Supplement i ng this traffic instruc- 
tion wi I I be a series of 1 1 fe-s ize images 
of pol icemen placed in conspicuous posi^ 
t ions on streets traversing school zones, 
warning motorists by an upraised author- 
itative hand to drive carefully. 

The Art Project is taking steps to 
remedy the conspicuous absence of fine 
arts in the schools. Artists are doing 
a lengthy series 6f vivid watercolors, 
woodcuts and lithographs in sufficient 
quantities* for permanent distribution to 
the city's educational Inst i tut ions. 01 I 
paintings, in somewhat limited numbers, 
are being provided, giving the artists 
at the same time an opportunity to do 
creative work on canvas. Those schools 
named after distinguished people, such 
as American presidents or statesmen, wi I I 
receive full-sized portraits of those 
ind i viduals. 

As the FAP takes t remendous st r i des 
forward in size, in service and in qual- 
ity of work, requests for more projects 
are pouring into its offices. There has 
never been, at any time, a shortage of 
work. In fact, many projects already 
planned and started have been laid aside 
for more urgent assignments. 

An unusual 'art project recently 
started is the plotting of a "crime map", 
designed and executed i n cooperation with 
police officials. To aid in instruction 
of patrolmen on danger spots, a parti- 



cularly troublesome city area was laid 
out on paper and carefully studied. All 
legal and illegal social institutions — 
saloons, gang headquarters, rowdy hang- 
outs, as well as banks, churches and 
stores — were indicated by colored index 
figures. When finished, the map will be 
presented to the precinct po I ice .stat ion, 
where it will become a permanent d isplay; 
other sect ions will be mapped simi larly 
by project artists following the same 
procedure used in the original. Thus, 
every precinct police station will be 
provided with an i nva I uab I e socia I in- 
stitution map of the neighborhood it 
serves. • 

The largest single crewtowork on 
one art project devoted itself to rush- 
ing completion of a monster relief map-- 
stretching 36 feet indiameter — of Cleve- 
land and vi cini ty for d Isplay in the city 
exhibit of the Great Lakes Exposition. 
The map will afterwards become a perma- 
nent city-owned object of interest to 
city visitors. 

This mammoth display, built in 43 
sections shows topographical and archi- 
tectural city features at a scale of two 
feet to the mile. So that the map will 
be portable and easier to construct, each 
sector continues the contour of adjoin- 
ing sections. 

Larger buildings and factories, 
and even some of the larger dwel I ings are 
shown individually. The lake shore, the 
Cuyahoga River, major traff^tc arteries, 
nearly al I streets, bridges, and main 
geographic f eat u res are shown exactly as 
Cleveland appears in an airplane view at 
4500 feet. Coloring and lighting are 
arranged to show alternately the realis- 
tic^ appearance of the city at dawn, mid- 
day and dusk. 

The completed map will have an es- 
timated value of $100,000, but its actual 
material cost, excluding artists' labor 
furnished by WPA^ amounts to only a 
$12,000 city appropriation. Its con- 
struction required over two and a half 



Section of the 
fa rm-to-ma rket 
road model pre- 
pared by the 
Cleveland Art 
Project 




months work by 40 artists and workmen. 

Certain of the plane maps made by 
the FAP will also be shown at the Expo- 
sition before being turned over to the 
schools and libraries. Graphic exhibits 
which cannot be reproduced in sufficient 
quantity for each school or I i brary branch 
will be put out in limited number and 
displayed in the main I i brary and selected 
educational centers. These will be toured 
occasionally through the city's educa- 
tional system. 

An exhi bit of WPA community improve- 
ments is another project being planned 
by the FAP. A set of eight shadow-boxes, 
simi lar to show-wi ndow displays, is being 
constructed to denote progress of pro- 
jects devoted to St reet and road improve- 
ment, slum clearance, cultural advance- 
ment and other key features of the WPA 
program. The display is in the form of 
cutouts painted byFAP artists, and when 
mounted will be lighted indirectly. 

Federal Art has set up a complete 
lithographing plant, capable of turning 
out professional-grade reproductions of 
maps, charts and drawings. Scores of 
lithographs and linoleum cuts have al- 



ready been copied perfectly by this meth- 
od, enabling schools to receive quality 
works of art otherwise unavailable. 

Work on a comprehensive mural, 
Children 's TaLes^ undertaken for the 
William CuMen Bryant Junior H igh Schoo I 
and presenting artists' conception of 
famous juvenile f let ion characters, wi I I 
be completed in time for presentation to 
the school this year. 

In a similar vein complete sets of 
tiny ceramic figures illustrating Alice 
in Wonderland and Uncle Remus have been 
presented to the Public Library. These 
sets will be used subsequently by the 
Board of Education for touring through 
the elementary schools, and are expected 
to form a real inducement towards fur- 
ther juvenile reading. 

Because somany priceless and his- 
toric works of art are unava i lab le to art 
students and the general public, and be- 
cause the former's great value makes an 
ordinary display inadvisable. Federal 
Art has undertaken to solve the problem 
through photography. Owners of these 
pri ce less works who wou Id ord i narl ly not 
hesitate in refusing them for exh i bit Ions 




Federal Artist Paul Breisach and one of the Perry murals 



have consented to photograph ic reproduc- 
tions; i n most cases i t is not even neces- 
sary to disturb the material in any way. 
Already over 200 photographs have been 
taken in private homes and museums for 
what is to be an Index of American Art. 
When compi eted, the latter will beaval- 
uable camera record of this section of 
the nation's artistic development, pre- 
serving irreplaceable material which 
mi ght eventua I ly become lost or dest royed. 

The projects here enumerated are 
recent, and are stressed in order to show 
the varied accompi ishments of Federal Arts 
in Cleveland. 

Ever since the Cleveland unit of 



Federal Art began to oper-te on a theory 
of combini ng both pract tea I and creative 
work, demands have poured in on It from 
ci ty departments and various pub! ic agen- 
cies — gratifying recognition of the Art 
Project's place in the community. 

TOLEDO 

For months now, Paul Breisach had 
been pori ng over h i story volumes. It was 
a strange occupation foranartlst, this 
research through long neglected tomes—- 
but Paul Breisach was working towards a 
definite end. Out of the material he so 
patiently and laboriously compiled was 
to emerge, in brilliant co lor and natura I 
sett ing, a fnura I in three pane Is, a mural 




(ndian head painted by a worker on the Cleveland Federal Art Project 



depleting Admiral Oliver Hazard Perry^s 
Lake Erie victory inthe War of 1812 — and 
that mural must be historical ly accurate. 
So Paul Brelsach read and continued to 
make notes of what he was reading. 

Today at Maumee, Ohio, where 
Brelsach lives and works on his contri- 
bution to the Toledo Federal Art Project, 
the last of the series of mura Is is slow- 
ly coming to final form. The finished 
product will hang permanent ly — and prom- 
1 nent ly — 1 n the state' s new Nava I Armory, 
constructed under CWA, FERA and WPA, 

The mural is an outstanding work. 
As such, it should beaccorded wide recog- 
nition, Itmay gain itscreator no mone- 
tary prize; it may gain him, through 
recognition of his ability, a permanent 
position as a commercial illustrator. 
But whatever the case, Toledo citizens 
cannot help feeling a stir of pride at 
the work done for thei r new Naval Armory, 
nor help conceding that the d i verslty of 
art projects inthelr city is aiding its 
cultural development in no uncertain 
manner. 

Toledo lays c I aim toanother novel 
art project; in fact the only one of its 
kind In the state. This Is the cinema 
project, des igned for the purpose of mak- 
ing a pictorial history of WPA in the 
district, and for the added purpose of 



filming safety plays to be c t rcu tated by 
the Board of Education through the pub- 
I ic school system. 

Five workers are employed on the 
project: two cameramen — one acting as 
supervisor — one artist, one laborer and 
one lay-out clerk; the group has already 
shot several thousand feet of interesting 
f 1 Im. 

In add 1 1 ion to thei r regularly as- 
signed work, the supervisor and two as- 
sistants were sent to the Ohio Valley 
during the spring floods to film those 
devastated areas. 

In Toledo, also, ten people are 
working on a Puppet Theatre project. 
Six artists, two skilled craftsmen, one 
costume maker and one supervisor are con- 
struct! ng two puppet theatres, which wi I I 
be circulated throughout the public 
schools to present safety and morality 
performances. 

The size of this undertaking is 
realized only when it Is revealed that 
all of the puppets, both miniature the- 
atres, and the trunks for all the prop- 
erties are constructed from raw mater- 
ials, with some I 10 different material 
Items being used. 

• Not only art accomplishment, but 



''Community Helpers" - one of many murals painted in Cincinnati public schools 

by Art Project workers. 




U 



,idd 



art instruction Is the aim of the Toledo 
art project, and that aim is being real- 
ized In the Museum of Art teaching project. 

A photographer makes prints of and 
then great ly enlarges selected paintings 
at the Art Museum. The artist assigned 
to the project then draws the picture's 
angles and curves In heavy crayon, lines 
best depicting the composition of the 
painting. Charts explaining the work 
are also made, and the pictures and charts 
together are then used in teaching the 
rudiments of drawing to the several hun- 
dred chl Idren art students at the Museum. 

Two art projects are operating in 
connection with the Zoological Gardens. 
The f I rst is engaged rn constructing port- 
able zoo habitat cases fordlsplay In the 
Aviary. Five artists, one taxidermist 
and two cabinet-makers are working on 
this project. 

On the second, a half dozen artists 
are providing naturalistic backgrounds 
for stuffed birds, to be displayed in 
glass enclosed cages in the new Museum 
of Natural History being erected by WPA 
at the Toledo Zoological Gardens. 

Workers study the natural envi ron- 
ment of the birds, paint landscapes for 
backgrounds and manufacture paper mache 
foregrounds to represent reeds, leaves 
and other fol lage. 

There was no place in the work scheme 
for Miss Gloria Sheffield until WPAcre- 
ated the Federal Art Project. Miss 
Sheffield, a native To I edoan whose sculp- 
ture has c la imed national attention, and 
some of whose works are InChicago museums 
and elsewhere, had devoted a lifetime to 
sculpture and painting. 

When the Museum qif Natural History 
was' being built. Miss Sheffield was as- 
signed to fashion busts of all the prin- 
cipal races of men from pre-historic man 
down. 



typical Anglo-Saxon reproduced in bronze 
from a clay mou Id— is completed. When alt 
of her work Is finished, it wi 1 1 decorate 
the Hall of Man, one of the Museum's 
twelve gal leries. 

In such fashion the Federal Art 
has been making use of talents heretofore 
being wasted due to lack of opportunity 
for expression. 

CINCINNATI 

Employing 17 relief artists and 
three non-relief supervisors. Including 
Mr; Paul Craft, district supervisor, the 
Federal Art Project In Cincinnati has a 
record of wide achievement since January, 
1936 when work was begun. 

The project has done extensive work 
in murals, easel painting and applied 
arts, decorat ing wal Is of Cincinnati pub- 
lic schools and making bird plates for 
the Zoological Gardens. In addition, 
designing on their own initiative, sev- 
eral artists have painted some commend- 
able canvasses. 

The panels are done In enamel, on 
the wa I Is above c lassroom b lackboards and 
in the corridors. Many letters of appre- 
ciation testify to the work of these 
graphic i I lustrations of educational ma- 
terial. The Cincinnati Association of 
Professional Artists writes: 

"We are aware of the work being ac- 
complished by the Federal Art Projects •♦ 
Because of its cultural value we feel, 
and strongly urge, that all efforts be 
made to extend this particular progra?^» 

The extension of this project li 
worthy of consideration not only frgm 
the standpoint of Immedlati tid i§ thi 
artists participating In this tnttrprfit^ 
but also because the work btfng m§mp\\^ 
shed is of such a nature thit lt§ ¥§^U 
ue will be apprecUttd f§r mny yttri 
to come. • . " 



Miss Sheffield's first effort — a 



Busy days forCfn§|finitl iPl pfij^ 



ect workers are envisaged for the future. 
Requests for panels pour in from the 
suburbs as we I I as from the city schools. 
A tentative later program includes murals 
and wal I decorations in the Pub I ic Li bra ry 
and in the Genera I Hospi ta I . In add i t i on, 
the Park Board Commission not only is 
anx ious to have more bird identification 



plates done, but has requested nature 
trail signs for trie parks* 

Federal Art will indicate its ac- 
chievements with an exhibition of some 
of its work in a public place in the 
heart of Cincinnati during the fall. 
Plans for an art competition among high 




13 



school students, interrupted by summer 
vacation, will be resumed in September. 

DAYTON 

The Art Project at Dayton, numbering 
only three workers, has encountered some 
handicaps, but certain results have been 
apparent, even though Dayton's best art- 
ists are employed on the Treasury Relief 
Art Project. 

The Federal artists preparedase- 
rtes of ol I paintings representing vari- 
ous stages and phases of organic evolu-* 
tion; pre-historic animal life, thegreat 
reptiles, tropical under-sea life, arctic 
life and the flora of the carbonaceous 
period. 

The project found Its most success- 
ful line of work In painting scenery for 
Parker High School dramatic classes. 
This class, unable to secure a scenery 
appropriation, had g iven a play and raised 
a small sum of money. This was used for 
the purchase of materials for the scenery 
prepared by the artists. 

A letter to the State Director of 
Art Projects expresses what the class 
thought of the work done: 

"Had it not been for this help we 
would not have been able to have this 
scenery because we lacked the funds and 
talent. The results are certainly worth 
whi le and we appreciate them more than we 
can express*" 

COLUMBUS CERAMICS PROJECT 

The only thoroughly comprehensive 
Ceramics Art Project in the country is 
operating at Columbus under the guidance 
of Miss Mae Cook, national ly known figure 
in the field of ceramics who has studied 
the art for years both in this country 
and abroad. 

The project, begun in January, 1936, 
employs nine artists who work under the 
personal supervision of Miss Cook. The 



results are apparent In the wide range 
of work produced by her workers—a few 
somewhat experienced, a few more wjth 
little or no experience, and one who at 
the start had even no conception of what 
work in ceramics entailed. 

Conditions are Ideal for turning 
out outstanding work. The studio is Miss 
Cook's own home, and the house Is thor- 
oughly equipped, its main feature being 
a modern brick gas-heated ki In rated by 
the American Ceramics Society as one of 
the best In the country. 

When the workers — all men — first 
began the I r tasks. Miss Cook divided them 
into teams, and fortwomonths gave them 
an exhaustive course In designing and 
drawing. Trips to the Archaeological 
Museum were taken for the purpose of 
studying Ind Ian and mound-bul Ider pottery 
designs. 

After the course In drawing, the 
workers sketched the I r own Ideas on paper 
and later modeled them In clay. 

They are engaged at present In de- 
signing and modeling 3,000 clay tiles 
for the new Social Administration Build- 
ing being const ructed byWPAatOhio State 
University. All of the tiles have been 
modeled and half of them fired. 

Cooperation on the project has come 
from such eminent men as: Ross C. Purdy, 
Secretary of the American Ceramics Soci- 
ety, and H. E. Shetrone, Director of the 
Ohio State Archaeological and Historical 
Society. Different clay companies have 
coop2rated to the extent of sending quan- 
tities of model Ing clayforMlss Cook and 
her protegees to test. 

Ohio, first in the ceramics art 
field, has placed In Its capltol an art 
project being watched with intense in- 
terest by outstanding leaders !n the field 
throughout the country 



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FE-DE-R6L mVSI^ 



Federal Music activities have va- 
ried from entertainment to education, 
from the popular to the classic* The 
units range from the gypsy band through 
the jazz band, comic opera, military 
band, string quartet to the concert and 
symphony orchestra. With this variety 
Federal Music presented 2,136 programs 
to audiences aggregating 863,979 lis- 
teners in the period fromearly December, 
1935^ to July, 1936. 

The task confronting the various 
supervisors, conductors and leaders, of 
organizing available ta lents i nto groups 
capable of broadcast i ng and of present I ng 
concerts of professional quality, was a 
difficult one. That the task was met 
successful ly has been proven by the grat- 



ifytngly large audiences which are at- 
tending Federal Music concerts; a major 
degree of credit for the success df Fed**- 
eral Music Is due these conductors, and 
to the pub I Ic-spi ri ted citizens who serve 
in various capacities on community com- 
mittees lending advice and support to the 
Music program* 

SYMPHONIC GROUPS 

Symphony or concert orchestras 
have been established I n Cleveland, Gin** 
cinnati, Akron and Toledo. A twenty-piece 
broadcasting orchestra Is on the al r reg- 
ularly from Station WOSU at Ohio State 
University In Columbus, and unKs of equal 
size have been serving Canton and Dayton. 

In Akron and Cincinnati, symphonic 



15 






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SYHPHOMIC aR^IHtSTMSOFTHtOHIA mtMl MVSIC PROJECT 



groups have gi ven much attent ion to music 
appreciation programs in the public 
schools; e^ery month, augmented by an 
almost equal number of volunteers, the 
Akron group has gi ven formal programs of 
symphonic calibre in the Central High 
School audi tori urn, 

Cleveland and Toledo symphony 
groups are carry i ng on music appreciat ion 
programs much after the fashion of the 
other two orchestras* In Cleveland, 
formal concerts are presented twice week- 
ly. The district supervisor in Toledo, 
who Is a lieutenant on the police force 
and conductor of the Toledo Civic Sym- 
phony, serves without remuneration from 
the Project; hecarrles onamusic appre- 
ciation series and also presents more 
formal programs. 

In Columbus the work of the or- 
chestra has been different from that 
\n other CI ties; it has supp^ led the radio 
station of Ohio State University with 
many worthwhile programs and has found 
additional time to giveaconcert at the 
Gallery of Fine Arts each month on the 
occasion of the opening of new exhibits. 
During warm weather this group has been 
presenting promenade concerts in the 
patio of the Gallery ^Mery Sunday after- 
noon. 

In Canton and In Dayton the or- 
chestras have been more definitely of 
the entertainment typealthough the music 
presented has been on a constant ly rising 
level. In Dayton much of the orchestra^s 
work has been associated with the local 
unit of the Federal Theatre, although 
many programs have been given In the parks 
and In Institutions. In Canton the or- 
chestra forms an important part of the 
community shows staged by the Recreation 
Department of the city, whose director 
is also serving without remuneration from 
the Project. The Canton orchestra has 
presented concerts at institutions and 
makes a weekly trip to one of the nearby 
CCC camps o 

DANCE ORCHESTRAS 

The Federal Project dance orches- 
tras throughout the state have also been 



busy and successful in supplying a com- 
munity need. In Akron, the conductor of 
the Negro unit, by augmenting a small 
group of instrumental performers with a 
group of s i ngers, has produced an ensemb le 
that is un ique as well ashighly artistic. 
Conf i nl ng the programs largely to spec la I 
arrangements of their own folk songs, 
thel r appearances have been wel I attended 
and have met with enthusiastic response. 
Negro o re hest ras are popu far too in Cin- 
cinnati, Toledo and Columbus; all these 
groups havehadmany repeat engagements. 
Cleveland's Negro orchestra has been un- 
usually fortunate in securing adequate 
instrumentation and original arrange- 
ments. AM the Negro orchestras have 
devoted special attention to the CCC 
camps, to supplying music for community 
dances at settlement houses and to pro- 
viding entertainment for shut-ins. With 
the coming of warm weather they have been 
in great demand for open-air dances In 
the parks and on the streetSe 

Ohio al so has danceorchest ras com- 
posed of white musicians, in Akron, the 
- ^piilarl ty of the Federal uhl t proves the 
success of the director's painstaking 
efforts. Tol edo and Ci nci nnat i were for- 
tunate In finding musicians available 
who fitted into the standard dance In- 
strumentation. The director in Columbus 
has formed an almost typical Spanish 
group, emphasizing the music of Latin- 
America. These white dance orchestras 
also have devoted quite a share of their 
performances to CCC camps as well as to 
shut-Ins in institutions, to street 
dances and parks. 

OTHER FEDERAL MUSIC UNITS 

Cincinnati has the distinction of 
having the only Federal chorus in the 
state. During the summer the conductor 
of thisgroup, with the aldof volunteers, 
has gi ven comic opera at the close of the 
regular Zoo opera season^ 

CI nci nnat i and Cl evel and each have 
outstanding concert bands. In Cincinnati 
the conductor and his group have enter- 
tained at every large community activity 

si nee the commun i ty Ch ri stmas eel ebrat ion 



18 




^LE-Vt-L^HD 



^ih^inneTi : 




- o 



\ - 








Tale-da flKRAn 

^ALVMBVS 




ne-^RA AR^Ht-STRflS AMD enSfMBLK IH AHIA 



in Fountain Square. 

In Cleveland also, a volunteer 
chorus with principals from the project 
accompanied by the symphony orchestra, 
has given more than twenty performances 
of the Mikado and nearly a dozen per- 
formances of the Chimes of fformandy in 
high school auditoriums a I I over the city; 
audiences have numbered from 700 to 1700 
at a single performance^. These perform- 
ances have been carried to the parks 
during the hot weather. 

There Isone string quartet in the 
state located in Cleveland. This group 
has presented programs in the auditorium 
of the Cleveland MuseumofArt and in the 

school auditoriums throughout the city. 
The reception accorded this unit augurs 
well for the future of chamber music in 
that locality. Chamber music has also 
been presented by members of the symphonic 
group In Cincinnati, although no formal 
quartet has been set up there. 

Cleveland probably by reason of her 
varied population of forei gn descent has 
two othergroups which have no dupl Icates 
in the state, an authentic Gypsy band 
which has succeeded in making a name for 
itself throughout Cuyahoga County; and a 
group which has been named "Muscovlans" 
who devote their attention to the folk 
songs and dance tunes of southeastern 
Europe. Both of these units are very 
popular and render a val uable service in 
bringing their folk tunes In authentic 
style to the ears of those who have not 
had the privMege of hearing them on the I r 
native sol I and in reminding those whose 
tunes they are, of apart of their native 
culture aM too easily forgotten. 

Musloians are also employed as copy- 
ists throughout the state, building up 
libraries that will be a val I able for fu- 
ture needs and supplying the orches- 
tras with needed parts and special 
arrangements* 

In Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus 
and Canton, teachers and leaders of musi- 
cal activities are being furnished to the 
sett I ement and community houses, provid- 
ing class instruction for those otherwise 



unable to secure musical training. In 
every case the interest and the attendance 
is such as to surprise those unfamiliar 
with such work. In di strict number four, 
an area of eleven counties lying east of 
Columbus, nine teachers have been con- 
ducting classes inCCC camps, settlements 
and rural communities otherwise almost 
untouched by musical activities. in 
addition to class teaching these rural 
teachers conduct choruses, bands and or- 
chestras bringing to these people commun- 
ity activities which their fathers and 
grandfathers knew but which the present 
generation has never known. 



NATIONAL MUSIC WEEK 

No report of the activities of the 
Federal Music Project In Ohio during 1935 
and 1936 would be complete without mention 
of the part it took in the celebration 
of National Music Week. 

Guy Mai er. Assistant to the National 
Director of the Federal Music Project 
and an Internationally known pianist In 
his own right, appeared as soloist May 
4th with the Akron Orchestra and May 5th 
with the Cleveland Orchestra. Unusually 
large audiences greeted him with an 
ovation In each city. Cincinnati pre- 
sented its symphony and chorus in a joint 
program on the 6th and the Columbus Or- 
chestra gave a program of the works of 
local composers in the Gallery of Fine 
Arts on the 8th. Large audiences attended 
both of these programs. 



In Cleveland on June 23rd the sym- 
phony alsotried the experiment of a local 
composers' program. Both In Col umbus and 
Cleveland real interest was aroused in 
the work of local composers and comments 
were quite general indicating surprise 
that such good music could have been 
written "at home." 

Federal Music In Ohio started with 
one employee on November 1st, 1935, and 
found itself on June 30th the employer 
of 578 musicians whose tal ents and ski I I 



20 



i n many cases we re rap idly be I ng dest roy ed 
either through lack of opportunity for 
use or, worse, through having to perform 
work which was detrimental. From the 
hands of many of these musicians. Federal 
Music in Ohio has literally taken the 
pick and the shovel, replacing it with 
the baton, the bow and the clarinet. No 
one who has not observed the process of 
"rehabilitation by work*' can realize 
ful ly the transformation that has taken 
place in these men as they turned from 
despair to hope and self-respect, from 
work for which they were unfit back to 
work for which they had spent a I i fe-t ime 
of preparation. 

That the work of Federal Music has 
been appreciated in Ohio, in all its 
phases, is clearly evident from the many 
letters of commendation which have been 

received and from press comment ranging 
from remarks of the music critics to 
editorials during the continuation and 
expansion of the Federal Music Program. 
The following letter and editorial are il- 
lustrations of the kind of public sup- 
port, wh ich Federal Music has aroused and 
is enjoying: 

Written immediately after the concert of 

Twsnty-thi nd District School 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

We all enjoyed your music sweet 

The snuff-box most of al I 

We liked the one of Jack and Jill 

But what a nasty fal I • 

The march, I think came second 

Eleven votes it got 

Eleven is not >/ery much 

But some think its a lot. 

Thank you. 

My name and age 
I have not told 
I 'm Patsy Raymond 
Eight years old. 

Th« •dftofUl: 

A riHE TOLEDO ORCHESTRA. 

"We wish to give tltghtly beUUd 
•dItorUI reeognttloiD to the stirring 



ptrforManc* of the Federal Concert Or- 
chettrt at Mrs. RoosevaItU leotura last 
weak. Thosa who heard the Ctvfe Auditor l« 
urn Musical parformanea were anthustasttc. 
Worth Coutney, business manager of The 
Maws-Bea, was so plaasad that ha persuadad 
the orchestra toplay for the Toledo Post 
of the American legion yesterday noon. 

"Again this Toledo orchestra was 
anthuslastlcally recalved. Mustcal laas'- 
terpleces of a 1 1 tl«e were mada popular 
favorites of the day by the spirited 
rendition of the' conductor and his as- 
soctatas* 

"*The bast musical prograMthls post 
has aver had was the tributa of Carllsia 
B* Elliott^ eoNHsandar of Toledo Post at 
the closa of the program. 'He maans the 
best program of any kind, U post member 

"The conductor had chosan his num- 
bars well^ and the orchaatra played them 
with a quality which caught the Interest 
and appreciation of a group which makes no 
spaclal profasslon of musical Intarest^ 

"A| I Toledoans should take Increas-- 
Ing nota of this orchestra. Here Is a 
group of fine music Una who are developing 
a Tolado Orchestra of quality under the 
•endowment' of the WPA. 

"Thasa musicians, who ware caught 
In the abb of the dapresslon and laft 
without Jobs, ara supported un4%r a fed«» 
aral grant. They are un4tr a 'work* 
routlna of saverat hours practica a day. 
But the work they are doing spaaks for a 
devotion which goas beyond any routine. 

"This Is a usa of ft4^ru\ money 
with which no qm should quarrel. What 
mora logical than that undar a democracy , 
govarnment Itsalf Is affording a patron* 
age which once cama from the Medici of 
Ploranca and which In affluent times in 
this country cama from an Insult or a 
Morgan. 

"Probably, however, this democratic 
patronage will come to an %n4. Then It 
will ba tima for Toledo Itsalf to main*> 
tain an orchestra which has great promlsa 
for a broad and fine davalopmant in the 
community." 



21 




Dfln^^ AR^HKTRflS AHD tMSMYlBLK IM AMIA 



^LfVM^nD ^YPSIE-S 







'Mary Dugan" Is 
Sharplv Acted 
by FTP Players 



■■Tr.«l of lf»r> D ;«n- 


tniut be 


'■-.nireltd of I 




■itt ih»r 


IfC-nd.. Ua« tt 


«t cmcs u 


il brock. 






nmittfiK 




[or tn« tui »x-«Kl<t 








1h< iBtaal prod 






Federal The»ter 




th. Cm- 








ot «ht Amd«'B 


mo*\ (un-ar*. acior- 


prncr p;ii>» 






A CBO r«adtly 


sw why th 


T«d«»»l 


TTieaUr f*r<y«M 


Pl»v»rs. •■ 


ho h.r.- 



«'rK tii-^ratuitcd aji Rt>b#rt McLkuitb- 
'Inn i»9t (-,-oilm'tion Ttw only on* 

made t^c *an<lii't.-h-eacinx epUodp 

•■•1 runny -n ;he Ofaii'.- mterniliisi<in«. 

lj^<i U Won rtavr.l 












11! njlm are fltlcfl tw- 
with unusuitl eppji-trn- 
iirray Fnwer «a Mary 
la "FotilM/' a mlllion- 
•h Farted faiatrma ae- 

cuied ot atabblnic him to death, does 

own the ability to wre»cb tha jury'a 

lor audlmre'«> hearts. 
Whilif a triftr InflFMlble at flrat. 

Jib* riitK her eirmuonal «trld« In 



rutins 



np* her Ufa apaat. 
ic«a«i«e la her 

lr«( crir-t, it^tm^ias *i*f youBIt 
-btvther whmn atM ilaved 



:rn« Kftne »l»o caj 
the dtatricl atlonn 






'ht r*-«cue. Henrr BrowTi M a ful. 
ar -ad artor wlime vocal eamemneu 
tnahea ap far hi« nie.:haniral icesi- 
turn. Much better ar« Phil Mil- 
ler aa the jvAgt. GeoT^e Robert* 
a« th<>> defence attorney aod the 
imtuimr ■TolUeV-irir; rn^nwma- 
'lonm br D*BDi»r Lome and May 



1 ' T.L • 





WPA Players Score 
in 'The First Legion,' 
on Federal Stage 

New ProHuction Is Deeply Hmotional .Drania 

on Cloistered Li\cs of Jesuit 

"Warrior Priests" 



By CRABLU SCHKCIDXE 

DELVING into the cloistered life of the Jesuits. "The 
First Letion," the Cleveland Federil Theiters new pro- 
duction which opentd last night. i« • deeplf cmotiontt dnma. 

Wrirwn by Bnmft UMrv and r^^MfU U..»^». 

mmirabh «U6Nl by th«e Vt». OCTltle rtUmor 

pl*yfr<. -The Plrst Le|ion ■ .> im M^ LAVERYS dm lot m "The 

nmt realisuc tre»tmfnt of Um> aar- ' "^ ^^Ml Leflon ' w ««lied with i 

rhir prj»M»" lo rf»ch the tUgt It qu«ninv o( qmei humor at tht «■■ 

«•.. producPd lut «,*«m 1th Bert fL'^f T' f*:* ,-!r^,„ """l"'.r.\!i 

Lvtell m the Iftrtidf role. -s^nL jo,n,' yn eentl^ rather than 

-The nm LBRion," trhlch Incl- bitlnflv uminr, Mr. Uvert ifave* 

denuily, bMn th« it«np of ap- ^^ churth a good t*tr of i„t to 

prov,l by cler,v of .11 a««i»m.- ,tatid upon. Jh.rrfTMr iLw 

now. carriea a *ttatm (Uror »f rf- ipareri hardly a woorirn limt). 

iiglon. Th(»e who hm Mm -The The l>Mer*i Theaier perlormtri 

Mlrtflp Man" and tt» humerotui tpealt their linen with cnnvicnon 

vflrlB-Jon* on sUfe and (crean wlU However, only PhllUp Miller, as the 

nm be unfemiiiar with lu (heme. warmly human Rev. Paul Duquwne 

U rirMche* a sermon rea—a »»t. cairie* the rmm appearance of t 

mwt ryrt the power of faith— yet even man of the cloth Moat of ih^ others 

»in njtnoeur wrmld M more than thoufh their artina l» fotnpetcn; 

:ikeh tn find it a iHirlnf and nrtd aeem to ine eve Iikr bumnean men .n 

piece of uieater. black bathr«>eii. iNotire Mr Wsrrt- 

•••••• rt*e Matter, ihote arern nockit an^^. 

Alj-Malc Cast TJ^:*Tf? ''*' '^" '^•""" '^*' 

PFRFORMED by an all-male eaat There are very aortd chararier- 

thr action of The Pirit Uflon aauoni" b* Mer Dovie, who h«< the 

ceniera aroMOd a tt-io at waverini "^^ '■**^ *" P^annf a monKianor ann 

novice .n the Jesuit Home ftf 8t iupplytnB comeity r*iie: »'. one anr 

<^^°n * th' Mm« time Hs Oene Kane, a-i ;h( 

On- of them »t the point nl ra- acnoitac dneiot who rnflne^n the 

rsinunt hJ* rv^ la led hack Into first miracle, and bv John RObertf 



tth whom he had parlM ta lebi the '^'" **^''** >*^™t prteau are played 

order convinew him (ofatatei that effec'ively b> Oeorie Hoberu Harry 

ihla W ihe onlv life (oe him Brown and Rnbert Utfett the para- 

The ^nd PTttrt « re«M«l to 'L"' .^"^r^v'SJ^rre^'^^Irr'" '" 

the faith bv the duMouaty mUmc- ="P>"«<' ""^ ^'' Charles Price, 

11 mis cure of a paralyuc - • - 



The third havinf seamed that th* 
prieat . cure wi« not a mirarle. t», 
irw;-»:.: appDinted to plead (or 
cajitinlMtion of iht fotiftder of Uie 
houee. He n?}ecu (he offkr and 
preparer to leave the bouae. 

Th'-n » cnppled ba!>'— one of 
thcHtfamU nt «ck Who have eome to 
(ha itmne Meking cyrts— pleadi hu 
f * tth and walk! Ttiua tte uaaUAdy 
believer :• trtMnht to a nallMOon 
that the irua irUrtcic u faiut it- 

Mir.- 



ThCATCR Pr^JCCTS 



Cach fiqurc=5 Workers 




Total Cmploycd=l78 



Supervisors 1 1 

A » ttlltitiltlltlfttilili 

Technicians 1 1 
workers f| 

ridinte nance g| 



FE-DEiR6L THMTFR 



Federal Theater tn Ohio, set up In 
December 1935^ is employing 187 workers 
on projects in CI eveland, Toledo, Dayton 
and Cincinnati. More than25plays have 
been produced and countless vaudeville 
and variety shows have been presented^ 

CLEVELAND 

The Federal Theater in Cleveland 
began ope rat ions i n the tiny Peoples Thea- 
ter, a renovated night club at 4500 Car- 
negie Ave. Readings and try outs were held 
and a great deal of time was devoted to 
careful coaching and rehearsals. This 
laboratory phase of the work was featured 



by frequent discussions of the multitude 
of problems confronting the organization* 

Bythemiddle of March the project 
was ready for real action. Federal Thea«- 
terwas introduced to CI eve land audiences 
in aseries of performances of fAa Living 
Ifewspaper^ which had previous ly scored a 
striking hit in New York. First nights 
so jammed the I75~seat Peoples Theater 
that the production had to meet the emerg- 
ency by moving to the Little Theater in 
Public Hall in downtown Cleveland. 

As a new arrival in such an unusual 
vehicle, theFederal Theater Project was 



25 



acclaimed in press comment. 

William F» McOermott wrote In the 
Cleveland Plain Dealer:: 

"I thought the show was Interest- 
ing and surprising ly good as a product of 
community theatricals. The dramatization 
of the news stories had liveliness and 
vitality, the two short plays were ski I I- 
fu I intens i fi cat tons of social problems. J* 

The Cleveland Press added this: 

"Alert theatergoers - especially 
those seeking 'something different* - 
should pounce upon this production of 
the F. T. P. and give it rousing cheers. 
With simple staging and unique lighting. 
The Living Newspaper dramatizes news 
events I nan incisive and compact 'March 
of Time' manner. There is nothi ng friv- 
olous about The Living Newspaper^ Ithas 
the breath of reality in it." 

Such encouragement, together with 
the strength of the public's support, 
helped to set the staff more firmly upon 
Its course and brought home to the F. T. 
P. the fact that there was an unmistak- 
able demand for dramatic portrayals of 
the current social scene^ 

With this demand In view. Triple 
A Ploughed Under, which had also been 
highly successful in New York, was set 
as the next production. Expansion was 
again found necessary, and the project 
secured the Carter Theater, which has a 
capacity of I800« The Carter was remod- 
eled by Federal Workers, renamed the 
Federal Theater, and taken over for an 
indefinite period. 

Triple A Ploughed Under was pre- 
sented In Its 24 rapid-fire scenes de-^ 
picting the American Farmer's plight, 
by a project staff of 70 workers, with 
sets and properties burit by the project 
workers. Mastery of the gat ling-gun dia- 
log andquick shifts through a continuous 
hour were accompi Ished largely as a result 
of the lengthy training period under 
capable supervision. 

Another triumph was recorded for 
the Federal Theater in Cleveland. Four 
performances were gi ven to capac I ty aud- 



iences, and again the newspapers were 
strong In their support. 

W. Ward Marsh, for Instance, said 
In the Plain Dealer; 

".... i was forced to believe that 
a new form of the theater, one sponsored 
by a government which has put Its okay on 
free, harsh, bitter, honest speech and 
criticism has actual ly been born here. . .'» 

"Performed by a long cast of sfery 
conscientious W. P. A. players. Triple 
A does have a tremendous amount of life 
and vitality.... It is Interesting and 
at times very sensat I ona I, a word not used 
in its usual theatrical sense." 

Late June brought the opening of 
The First Legion, a three-act play by 
Emmett Lavery on a problem of modern Ga- 
tholicism. The active cooperation of 
churchmen was enlisted to work In the 
finer touches of characterization and 
acting. 

CompI ete advance sel l-outs to vari- 
ous religious groups resulted for the 

first three nights, and once more local 
papers praised the project work. 

In July Bayard Velller's dramati- 
zation of The Trial of Mary Dugan, a court- 
room drama which had an extended run on 
Broadway several years ago, was success- 
ful ly produced. 

Simultaneous with the development 
of this project since December 1935, a 
Negro unit of the Federal Theater has 
made its own marked progress. Active 
sponsorship by the Playhouse Settlement 
in provid ing theater f ac i I It les permitted 
the establishment of this group as the 
Community Laboratory Theater* It is lo- 
cated in the center of the city's N^gro 
populatibn in the 120-seat Karamu Thea- 
ter, which has been used for the past 16 
years by the Gilpin Players, a locally 
famous Independent group. 

With a project force of 22 people> 
this Negro unit of the Federal Theater 
Project launched Itself early in the 
year with the production of Big Top, a 
three-act play of circus 1 1 fe* Re-adapted 
to suit conditions, the presentation was 



26 



well received. 

The extent of this initial success 
was sufficient to prompt an early follow- 
up with a program of three one-act pieces; 
United We Eat, by Alice Ware, dealing 
with conditions among southern' share 
croppers: Little Fowl Play, by Glen 
Hughes, a comedy of Harlem life; and Will 
Hughes' ^o Left Turn, concerning the 
unionization of bellhops. 

On thisvital material mimeographed 
question-sheets distributed to the au- 
dience brought out much helpful comment. 
Almost all agreed that the plays were a 
welcome relief and a healthful contrast 
to the usual Hollywood mockery and mis- 
representation of Negroes. By the evi- 



dence of these questionnaires. Federal 
Theater's Community Laboratory Theater 
Is using its opportunity to reach the 
heart of the Negro people in Cleveland. 

Other product ions of the Community 
Laboratory Theater have included Brain 
Sweat, by John Charles Brownell, and a 
second group of one-act plays: l?ngston 

Hughes ' Soul Gone Home, Pau I Green's 
End of the Row and Sick and Tiahed, by 
Theodore Ward. This second program of 
one-actbrs proved so popular that it is 
now being repeated. 

The Negro unit of the Federal Thea- 
ter, is now considering for its next major 
production Conjure Man Dies, by Rudolph 




Hegro Federal Theater players of Cleveland in "United We Eat" 



27 




Cleveland Theater Project production of "The First Legion* 



Fisher, a three-act murder mystery, which 

would be supplied by the Federal Theater 
repertory department in New York City. 

Construction and successful pres- 
entation of a mobile marionette show has 
been another feature of the work accom- 
plished recently by this group. Using 
impromptu skits devised by the members 
themselves, it has performed at the Karamu 
Theater and at Tri nity Cathedra I . Another 
show in the public school in suburban 
B recks vi I le demonstrated the possi bi I i- 
ties forthis type of work in cooperation 
with the schoo t s. 

TOLEDO 

The Federal '"Theater In Toledo, em- 
ploy i ng 32 peop le, is sponsored by a local 
amateur theater group, the Toledo Reper- 
toi re Company, which organizat ion has made 
its theater and equipment available to 
the project. 

The first production. Hatcher 
Hughes' PuMtizer prize play. Hell Bent 



for Heaven, was presented February 27th 
at the Little Repertoire Theater to an 
appreciative audience. 

The Toledo Blade commented: 
*'Excel lent performances were g i ven 
by each of the seven cast members. ..Act ion 
in the presentation was swift, lines were 
we I I read, and the scenery appropriate and 
attractive. Particularly good were the 
sound effects." 

This present at Ion proved so popular 
that repeat performances were given March 
7-8, afterwhich the company went "on the 
road," presenting the play In the high 
school auditorium at Bowling Green. 

The next production of the Toledo 
Federal Theater was A Woman's May, a come- 
day by Thomas Buchanan, which had been 
chosen by 27 stock companies for their 
opening bill the first season after Its 
release. Presenting the play April 16, 
the Toledo players thus proved thefr a- 
bi Mty to perform both serious drama and 
comedy . 



28 




Toledo 

Federal Theater 



"Sell Bent 

For Heaven" 



A month lateranother comedy. His' 
ffellie of M 'Orleans^ a play of the Mardi 
Gras in the late nineties, opened in the 
Little Repertoire Theater for a three- 
day run. Toledo audiences liked this 
playsowell that add i t iona I performances 
were given the following week. 

The latest product ion of the Toledo 
project is Edgar Wallace's Criminal At 
Large, which closed June27after a yery 
successful three-day engagement. Moving 
into the story like a troupe of seasoned 
veterans, the company carri ed off the sus- 
pense of this Intricately-woven mystery 
drama with all the finesse needed for the 
proper interpretation of a technically 
difficult play. 

In a review of the Fed era I Theater's 
production of Criminal At Large, The Toledo 
Mews-Bee spoke of the cast as one "that 
does the Federal Theater and Director 
Arthur P. Hyman a lot of credit. •» And 
a^Affi "Ve ry much wo rt h see i n g , this p res- 
entatton of the Federal Theater". 

DAYTON 

The di rector of the Federal Theater 
in Dayton, is proud of the work of his 
company, "I have a cast," he said re- 
cently, "Capable of playing Hamlet one 
nighty Pinafore the next and vaudeville 
the third." 

Although they have had no occa- 



sion yet to play either Shakespeare- br 
the whimsical operettas of Gilbert and 
Sullivan, the Dayton project has lived 
up fully tothe tribute of its director. 
According to the most recently available 
statistics, the troupe has given 25 per- 
formances before an aggregate audience of 
22,387 persons. These productions have 
included vaudevi I le and a series of plays, 
presented In the National Military Home, 
the State Hospital, in orphanages, in- 
stitutions, and public auditoriums. 

The response to this widespread 
program of free theatrical performances 
has been highly enthusiastic. A large 
number of letters have reached the desk 
of theDi rector of W. P. A. District #15. 
compi Imenting the W. P. A. on the qual Ity 
of the work being done under the Federal 
Theater program. , 

The Superintendent of the Mont- 
gomery County Children's Howe wrote: 

"I wanttothank you and your Dra- 
matic group forthe splendid performance 
you put on for our Chi Idren Sunday after- 
noon. The children and raembers of our 
staff who saw It have nothing but praise 
for It. It was a well selected prograrr 
and one that all could enjoy." 

The Dayton project was conceived 
In November, 1935, in the minds of two 
unemployed actors, both of Dayton, who 
had read of the act ivi ties of the Federal 



29 



Theater in other cities. Aftera consul- 
tation with the State Director of the 
program, a Federal Theater Project was 
set upatDaytoa January 20, i936. Actors 
were taken from the rel ief rbl Is and began 
to rehearse in the auditorium of the 
Chamber of Commerce. 

The personnel of the Dayton group 
includes several persons who have had 
extensive and interesting backgrounds in 
the world of the theater. Every member 
has had professional experience, most 
of them with stock companies. 



been oneof the greatest blows to asp i ring 
thespians. Little theaters endeavored 
to accompi i sh that aim, but generally at 
the sacri f ice of materia I gains. In this 
project, at least, the actors eat and that 
is something not to be overlooked in the 
field of dramatics." 

Subsequent productions have includ- 
ed Marriage by Proxy: Folks on Bear Run: 
DuLcy, one of the early products of the 
famous team of George S. Kaufman and Marc 
Connel ly; that perenn iai favorite The Old 
Soak; and more than a dozen vaudeville 
shows. I n manv rji<^^c; pi dIau ahH nina 



PI '^ilj II I 




Cast of the Cincinnati Theater Project 



Produced as the Initial offering 
was The G-^Man, a modernized adaptation 
of Don Marquis' The Man from Montana, 
presented first in the Memorial Hall at 
the Soldiers" Home and later at a small 
admission charge in a public auditorium. 

Sets and pro pert ies were construct- 
ed by the project workers, and music was 
provided by the Dayton W. P. A. Orcnestra, 
through cooperation with th? Federal 
Music Project. 

i -^ commenting on this production 
In the Dayton Herald, A. S. Kany reminded 
his readers of the value of work relief 
for the acting profession, saying: 

'*The play affords the group a chance 
for exoression. the denial of which h;^^:^ 



acts of vaudevi I I e were presented on the 
same program, by the same cast, backing 
up the previously quoted statement re- 
garding the versatility of the workers. 

Plans forthe future of the Federal 
Theater Project in Dayton are in keeping 
with its steady improvement. Oneof the 
highl f ght3 of the summer season is Brady's 
After Dark^ which the project was given 
permi ssion "to produce at the National 
Military Home during July". 

CINCINNATI 

In Cincinnati, theFederal Theater 
project officially opened December 19, 
1935. The 74 persons employed were di- 
vided into three units, two vaudeville 
and one drama t ic. the latter unit o resent - 



30 



ir»g one-act plays, the other two giving 
variety programs in publ ic institutions. 

Early in 1936 the aud 1 tori urn of the 
Odd Fellows Temple was redecorated and 
equ I pped as of f i cia I headquarters of the 
Fed era I Theater. The f i rst presentat ion 
of the project, Adam and Eva, was given 
April 14-18 before capacity audiences. 

At a performance in Norwood City 
Hall, an impatient crowd broke down the 
doors when they could not beadmitted to 
theauditoriumal ready fi I led to capacity. 

In May the project was re-organized 
and Theodore Hahn Jr. widely known Cin- 
cinnati musician and showman, was placed 
in charge. SinceMr. Hahn isalso Super- 
visor of the Federal Music Project in 
Cincinnati, this move makes for cooper- 
ation between these two closely allied 
groups. 

Pending the complete re-organiza- 
tion of the project, the drama unit is now 
prepared to present a series of orte-act 
plays, and is rehearsing Skirt Sleeves, 
a three-act playby alocal writer, while 
the vaudeville units have given 28 per- 
formances to a total attendance of 10,470 
i n the past month. 

Plans for the future of the Federal 
Theater in Cincinnati are pretentious. 



and the project hopes to produce signif. 
icant modern plays, mus ical comedy and 
operetta. Every possible encouragement 
will begiventothewriting and produc- 
tion of original plays, particularly 
plays which offer the beginnings of a 
I oca I fol k drama. 

The Director of the Cincinnati 
projects says: 

"We hope to build up a Federal 
Theater in Cincinnati that will be the 
equal ofany in the country; toencourage 
and develop new talent and to give the 
public the opportunity of enjoying the 
excellent, professional talent." 

FALL AND WINTER PLANS 

The. program of the Federal Theater 
in Ohio for the Fall and Winter season 
calls for a combination of units now in 
operation. The talent and facilities of 
the Toledo project will be absorbed by 
the larger and more flexible Cleveland 
units; and the Dayton unit will become a 
part of the Federal Theater i n Cincinnati . 

This combination of personnel and 
facilities will centralize Federal The- 
ater efforts inOhio's two largest cities 
and will undoubtedly result in stronger 
and more effective producing units. 




Set for the Toledo Federal Theater's production of ^Criminal At Large" 



31 



Writers pROJcas 



(ach figure = 10 Worhfrs 




ToIq\ emp\ov)(d-597 



Supervisors! J I 

EE tlittttliiittttii 

s. tilitllittf llllllllltl II 



Clerical 
Workers 



lllllllitlllilll 



F-E-DE-RflL WRITtRS* PROJKTS 



THE OHIO GUIDE 

On November I, 1935, a state-wide 
staff of 350 Federal Writers' Project 
workers started collecting material and 
preparing maps and i I I ust rat Ions for the 
800-page Ohio Guide, a work which will 
provide the most complete travel hand- 
book ever compi I ed in the state, and give 
Ohioans and tourists a concise and au- 
thoritative reference work. A condensed 
version of this Ohio Guide material will 
be the Ohio sect i on of the American Guide, 
a six-volume guide-book for the entire 
nation, similartothe Baedeker and other 
travel books which have been widely used 
for many years throughout Europe. Such 
a book will do much to stimulate travel 



in our own country and arouse interest 
in the American scene. 

Publication of the OhiaGuide will 
be sponsored by a public or semi-public 
agency, on a non-prof it basis. It is es- 
timated that the price of the book will 
be less than one dollar. The six-volume 
American Guide will sell for less than 
four dollars a set. Hotels, steamship 
lines, railroads. Chambers of Commerce, 
information services, and other organiza- 
tions concerned with the travel Jng publ ic 
have already manifested Interest In the 
writing and distribution of the Suldes* 

With headquarters in al I of the 16 
WPA districts in Ohio, Guide reporters 



32 



and research workers have gathered masses 
of historical and geographical informa- 
tion through interviews, f leld t ri ps and 
careful study of all available reference 
works on Ohio^ All of this material is 
edited and submitted to the State Edito- 
rial Board at Columbus, where it is re- 
edited and condensed for inclusion in the 
Ohio Guide or in related publications 
of the Writers' Projects. 

The tremendous amount of work nec- 
essary to prepare final copy on the Guide, 
even on small counties, is incalculable^ 
All books dealing with certain periods 
of history do not agree. Guide data must 
be read and checked by at least three edi- 
tors. In instances where an element of 
doubt still prevails, strict care Is ta- 
ken to Include all known facts. 

The greater part of the material 
fortheGuide, however, could notbe pro- 
cured by mere library research. Sections 
of r/ie Guide dealing with Folk Lore, Eth- 
nology, Points of Interest, Churches, 
Clubs, Tours, Tourist Accommodation and 
Transpo rtat i on Fac i I i 1 1 es ~ a M requ i red 
months of travel , interviews and the In- 
terpretation of records. 

For instance the Guide staff at 
Youngstown, In preparing a walking tour 
through Mi I I Creek Park actual I y took the 
trip, on foot, and noted carefully all 
turns, street names, distances, points 
of interest, bui Idings and bridges along 
with general description and history. 

In order to cover the country com- 
p i ete I y and i den t i f y eve ry v i I I age, c ross- 
roads or area known by name. Guide workers 
contacted postmasters, studied enlarged 
sectional or township maps, and inter- 
viewed rural mail carriers. 



The OAio Gtiide wi I I be divided into 
sections and sub-sections and arranged 
so that information on any specific sub- 
ject can be readi ly found by even the most 
casual reader. The brief introductory 
essays \n Section i col lect i vely make for 
a complete physical, social, historical 
and cultural picture of the state of Ohio. 



Tourists' and students of history 
will appreciate the section entitled 
Points of Interest. An ordinary wheat 
field takes on added significance when 
the tourist consul ts his Guide and finds 
that this place was once the site of a 
pioneer village. A ramshackle red brick 
dwel I ing on a country crossroads becomes 
a point of interest when the Guide informs 
the student that here was born or lived 
a great poet, statesman, orsoldler. The 
section will contain brief descriptive 
and informative articles on historic 
houses, monuments and memorials, edu- 
cational institutions and specialized 
examples of Ohio industry, art and arch- 
itecture. 

Twenty principal cities are de- 
scribed i.n another section, with full In- 
formation on the history and government, 
industrial and cultural facilities of 
each community. All other cities, towns 
and villages in the state wilt be de-^ 
scribed In the Tours Section which will 
present forty separate tours covering 
the entire state, planned and designed 
to give the tourist an interesting and 
enjoyable trip no matter where he may be 
travel I Ing In Ohio. 

These Tours wl I I give al I the prac- 
tical information necessary concerning 
roads and detours, as we I I as describing 
points of interest found on each. Per- 
haps the tourist will desire Information 
about the col lege In a small town through 
which.heis passing. If so, he need refer 
only totheGutde. Or again, ifhels in- 
terested in the historical significance 
ofamonument, hewillfind full particu- 
lars In the Guide. The Tours, in fact, wi I I 
bri ng toattent ion many locations of in- 
terest which might otherwise escape no- 
tice. The following excerpt from Guide, 
Tour #9, i I lust rates the variety of prac- 
tical and descriptive information to be 
gained from one of these careful ly pre- 
pared travel handbooks: 



•'West from Portsmouth, US 52 fol lows 
the OhioRiver, «themost beautiful river 
on earth' Thomas Jefferson once cal led it. 



33 







k^ZSE^DEZZ 





One of several tour maps included in the Ohio Guide 



The waterfront along which one moves 
smokes and flames with its energies of 
today, until one all but forgets its 
historical background. Upon it the main 
continental routes of colo nial America — 
those of Washi ngton, Braddock, Forbesand 
Boone — all converged, 

"RAVEN ROCK, 3 miles, is a great 
ledge of stone overlooking the Ohio and 
Scioto Va 1 1 eys* Legend has it that Indians 
planning to ambush white settlers sig- 
nal ed the latter's coming from this high 
vantage point. Nearby is RAVEN ROCK AIR- 
PORT and COUNTRY CLUB. At 3i m. is the 
site of Scioto County's first courthouse 
and the home of its first postmaster. 

"West of BUENA VISTA, 19 m., is 
SANDY SPRI NGS, 21 m., at which point ferry 
servl ce to Kentucky is available, one of 
the 82 ferries along the Ohio. 

"Beyond STOUT, 27 m. is MANCHESTER, 
41 m.; the beauty of the scenery along 
this point appealed to Nathani el Massie, 
pioneer and founder of Manchester, whose 
old home on the picturesque heights of 



the Ohio still stands. 

"West of Manchester Is ABERDEEN, 
53 m.; a tol I bridge at this point cnosses 
the Ohio River into Kentucky; the charge 
for automobiles is 55^ and 54 for each 
passenger. 

"RIPLEY, 62 m,, serene enough today 
was once an Abol I tlonlst center seething 
with anti-slavery sent iment. Copper tab- 
lets with the appropriate inscriptions 
mark the front of the homes of some of 
the better known anti-slavery leaders, 
among them James Poage, founder of the 
town. It was near Ripley that Eliza of 
Uncle Tom's Cabin is supposed to have 
crossed the ice on her flight from slav- 
ery. In the yard of a private residence 
is a tablet marking the former home 
of Admiral Albert Kantz, whom Admiral 
Farragut sent to haul down the Confederate 
flag over City Hall at the surrender of 
New Orleans. The Methodist church yard 
contains a monument erected to Rear Ad- 
miral Joseph Fyffe, who as commander of 
a wooden gunboat on January 25, 1865, 



35 



Paints Ar Inte-r^st In Ahia 



Cornell St«ps * licking County 
- Courtesy of Bob Woo I sen 



McKinlay Monument in Canton 




AMIA'S feVR \;6PITAL BVILDIN^S 



Colunbilk. 1816 - 1852 




Chitiicothe, 1800 - 1810 
1812 - 1816 



Courtesy of the Ohio State MuftdWi 



forced two Confederate i rone I ads to with- 
draw. He was decorated by Queen Victoria 
for heroic services i n the search forSir 
John Franklin, lost In the Arctiic regions 
In 1896. 

"Fol lov^lng US 52: LAVANNA 65 m.; 
HIGGINSPORT 71 m.; 80UDES FERRY 74 m. ; 
UTOPIA 77 m. and NEVILLE 86 m. Practically 
all of these towns have some sort of ferry 
service to Kentucky. 

"All along this part of the Ohio 
is the habitation of the river white 
— a shanty boat, moored below a point or 
nearatown. Its owner pays no rent, and 
supports his family by fishing or doing 
odd jobs ashore; his domain Is the entire 
length of the Ohio and the Mississippi. 
Keeping the government lights provides a 
smal I assured income to farmers along the 
river; because the work is comparatively 
simple, the! r wives or chi I dren may do It. 

"POINT PLEASANT, 92m., isaserene 
hamlet, where Ulysses S, Grant, eigh- 
teenth president of the United States, 
was born. A portion of the house, in- 
cluding the room In which Grant was be- 
ll eved to have been born, still stands in 
the U. S* Grant State Memorial Park here. 

"CINCINNATI, 110 mi.^ Is a metro- 
politan area of wide diversification of 
Interest. The city enjoys a high repu- 
tation asan art and music center and has 
developed a seri es of beaut i ful parks and 
boulevards. Of special interest are the 
Zoo, the Art Museum, the Taft Museum, 
nationally known municipal enterprises, 
the General Hospital and the University 
and St. Xavier College. 

"At Cincinnati US 52 leaves the 
river and the first town is Cheviot, 
I 17 m. 

"The Ohio part of US 52 ends at 

Harrison, 134 m., where a stone marker, 

reminder of Morgan «s raid, stands in the 
center of town.". 



Seventy maps and 50 photographs 
will Illustrate the Ohio Guide. Single- 
page maps include tour maps, city and 
vicinity maps and 23 state maps of spe- 



cialized character, showing governmenta I 
divisions, location of mineral deposits, 
f o rest a reas, annua I d i st r i but i on of tem- 
perature and rainfall, as we I I as maps 
on topography, transportation, Indian 
trails and ethnology. Included also will 
be a large folding mapof Ohio, and folding 
industrial and historical picture maps. 
Among the illustrations will be photo- 
graphs of famous but Idings and monuments 
in the state and general scenic views of 
cities and rural areas. 

So great has been the Interest 
aroused in the Ohio Guide that more 
than 2,000 prominent Ohio citizens have 
offered their services as volunteer ad- 
visors and consu I tants in the compi I at ion 
of Guide material . 

To these 2, 000 better known citizens 
may be added the descendents of those 
pioneers who helped to fashion Ohio's 
history, and whose anecdotes are con- 
tributed to the Gttide. Volunteers in- 
clude mayors, public school su(>erih- 
tendents, college professors, newspaper 
editors, scientists, statistical expert^ 
local historians and officers of civic, 
historical and social organizations. 

Representative of those who are 
serving as advisors and consultants are 
Charles Frank I i n Thwing, president emeri- 
tus of Western Reserve University; Or. 
Louis A. Pechstein, Dean of the College 
of Education, University of Cincinnati; 
H. E. Shetrone, Di rector of the Ohio State 
Archaeological and Historical Society; 
Paul T. Bellamy, editor of the Cleveland 
Plain Dealer; Paul A. T. Noon, State Li- 
brarian; Rabbi James G. Hel ler. Musician 
and head of the Zionist organization In 
America; Blake-More Godwin, Director of 
the Toledo Museum of Art; J. C. Woodward, 
Warden of the Ohio Penitentiary; Dr. 
Raymond Walters, President of the Uni- 
versity of Cincinnati; Dr. Carl Wlttke, 
professor of History, Ohio State Univer- 
sity; WiJber Stout, State Geologi st; Dr. 
William D. Overman, Curator of History 
atTheOhio Archeol ogi cal and Historical 
Museum, and many other we I I known author- 
ities and prominent representatives of 
Ohio professions and institutions. 



37 




Projects, 



Columbus 



The compilation of the Guide re- 
presents, in the final analysis, a great 
deal of human endeavor. While intended 
to gi ve employment temporari I y to a great 
many, it serves another purpose, that of 
providing valuable training for re-em- 
ployment. That the writing of the Ohio 
Guide has served this two fold purpose 
is unquestionable. It has been proven 
in the cases of more than 100 workers for 
whom this program has been a stepping 
stone to p*(rmanent positions in private 
employment. 

There are, for instance, these 
former workers: 

Case I, aged 54, and married. A 
man wi th some t rai ni ng for the ministry, 
he had been unsat i sfactori ly empi oyed on 
another WPA project before being trans- 
ferred in January totheWriters' Project. 
At the latter work he developed a talent 
for editorial work and public speaking. 
His outstanding work as Guide editor at- 
tracted the attention of church repre- 



sentatives; hewas offered, andaccepted, 
a ministerial post in Central India as 
the representative of a promi nent denom- 
Inati on. 

Case 2, had a newspaper and adver- 
tising background, and had lost his job 
through the merging of two local papers. 
Idle for many months, he was almost a 
physical and mental derelict when he 
started on the Guide project in November. 
The work brought back the man's self- 
respect and sel f-confidence to such a de- 
gree thathehas left the Writers' Proj- 
ect to represent an inter-state adver- 
tising syndicate. 

Case 3, of Cleveland, aged 29, and 
with a family of three children, had 
been writing for various lesser-known 
magazi nes before becomi ngaspecial writ- 
er for the Guide> Hewas seriously con- 
sidered for a 1936 Ll terary FeMowshi p 
offered by one of the leading American 
publ i shi ng houses. 



38 



OHIO PRKS mmi 0(1 

mm mms prweit 



photogra- 
aid work- 
! complla- 
vel hand- 
Ubrariani, 
.uthoriUes 

tdlng cUi- 
'ho have 
obtaining 
I The ad- 

for this! 
•ol super* 
tssors, lo- 
editops, 
xjtert*. as 
civic, his- 1 
zations. 
he Writ- 
rical Rec- 
oviding a 

the pub- 
vey em- 
ail o/j 

inder the 
D. Over- 

jpervJsor, 
a period 
direction 

recorders! 

this data J 
the pub- 

leum and! 

idreds^ of! 

JNuiiicr 

Toi 



^and loca 
dered I 
jccts in 
Carl Wi 
trator. 6 

"Tlie 
of the V 
relief ; 
Watson 
they pio 
so-called 
the depi 



What We Needed 

with tl» creation of the Federal Writers' project, un- 
:der the baton of WPA Director Harry Hopkins. « two- 
fold barrage at Old Man Deprjssion was released at 
Washington 

Primarily, an unemployed newspaper man (or wo- 
man) If m much the same professional classification as 
the proverbial "man without a country" Despite the 
versatility of his dallly routine, the news "hawk" out of 
work finds himself in the unpleasant dilemma of being . 
able to do one thing well and many things unsatisfac- 
torily 

H« may ha\e a goodly knowledge of ths workings of 
the stock market.- but he'd be a woeful flop at selling 
bonds He undoubtedly knows pU the "answers" to a 
murder: enigma, but he's no sleuth. 

Hes probably written hundreds of yams about Mi- 
lady's styl:s at Eastertide, but let him try to sell an 
ensemble! So, with the advent of the writers' project, 
worthwhile if weakly remunerative employment took 
hundreds of embryo Hearsts off America's sidewalks 

At ppjsent uncle Sara's army of fact assemblers are 
reporting upon, editing and compiling In data form Just 
what this country has needed for generations— a con- 
cise hand-book of communal America! 

It's a tremendous task Historical, Industrial, geo- 
graphical highlights on every community In the United 
States are the objectives a flip of a page will tell you 
the population of your county. Its principal industrial 
and agricultural output, its historical sequence In the 
matter of outstanding citizens and their participation 
m the building of a great community; In short, every- 
thing you should know and have wanted to ascertain 
about the vicinity you call '■ home " 

Although there has been £ 
idmlniatratlon which woul 
ployed into the "eating" fold of the nations Jobless. 
we heartily commend in kindred spirit, any aid given 
to those frOBjn out by a helpless Fourth Estate ' 
i Ohio Is being served, administratively, by capable 
WPA directors In this work, and the Buckeye state 
should welcome enthusiastically, the finished product 
ofjtjig^ rWP 



Zanc-sviUe Signal 
June 8 



cnipC( 
productii 
dilions t 
"Dili( 
to find 
will pioi 
'Ohio ' 
which 1 
library 
Guide is 



300 EMPLOYED 
IN COMPILING 
WPA HANDBOOK 

Traveling Information is 
Gathered by Force of 

m iniir 



"THE TREASURE HUNT" 



COM 

Work 
WPA 

ploying' 
assisted 
sultan t! 
to the 
Dunton 
Federal 
Writer 
phers, cl 
ers are I 
tion of 1 

^^ 

teachers 
through 

Many 
zens are 
VolunteiB 
Informat 
visors a 
ivorlc Ini 
intenden' 
cal histo 
Scientific 
well as 
torical a 

Also 
ers' Proj 
brds Sur 
complete 
lie recor' 
ployees t 
Ohio's 88 

The Re 
direction 
man, as 
Ohio Sta- 
of two y 
MO rese 
clerl< 







Some of 



111 vri. Auivi luaTiuii OCJ 



" n each 
ibrarians 
/olunteer 
ioHcal Ri 



Woil< 
torical 
|>ook hu( 
last NoV 
.more thj 
employe! 
fthan thr 
ion ever; 
\ interest 
producer 

In Ct 
the Stat; 
visors a; 
; have hi 
Guide \ 
smalt ca 
other loj 
as volun 
cities ai 
treasure! 
Elscwhei 
classes I 
.joining ' 

The I 
and del 
place-na 
ievery 
state, w 
mately 
pages d 
trations. 

In ad 
practi<;a 
tion -©f 
Ends" « 
"Ohio 
of Rac 
"DescriptV? 
"Boole ■ 
lection 
legends' 
Ohio •• 
I hnlf aJHn»en 



i MO r 
^^ ind cl 

faearthed By American Guid^ 
Writers In Lima And AUer FEDERAL 

mm^ GATHER 



FOR THE AMERICAN GUIDE 
To thi Editor et The N«wi: 

The writer had -the pleasure a few days 
axo of tallcinR to Leonard K. Henry, Kupei- 
tntendent of the writers' project of district 
No. 15, conducted by the WPA workers, 
with headquarters on the third floor of the 
City building. 

The project is compilinjr data on early 
life in Montgomery, Butler, Wavrcn ami 
Preble counties, on legends, anecdotes, old 
• land marks, their history and aimilur ma; , 
terial 'There arc no doubt many older reai~ 
dents of these counties who can recall sucTi, 
places and incidents as desired hy the 
project, and any material they furnish Mr 
Henry will be Jtrcatly appreciated 

Eventually the material will be combined 
with data from other Ohio cities and coin., 
piled into a history of the state. People 
should send in any information they hovo 
ax we want this district to stand out as fur- 
"tiishing the best history of the stati. 

RAY J DWYEB. 

2316 St. Charles av , Dayton, 

Da-yion News 
Februarij 15 



65 "White 
Work 0^ 



GIVING OHIO PLACE IN GUIDE 



Tlu' WPA, wiiile criticized lieie luid tlieie !oi \ia- 
lous kinds of worlc being done must be commended 
for the project now under way in the wiiieis' (U\ision 

Thers Is now in course of preparation the Ameri- 
can Guide, being built through the effoits of wrifeij: 
m various sections of Uie countiy 

Ohio is to have a place in lliis publication, notiiiij 
lis historical, cultitial and educational progi-css Tlic 
Ohio wilters are eager to get data on old histoiy old 
lellcs, old heii looms documents and publications that 
the world has long since forgotten In many iiomcs 
ill the ittties, closets and basements aie iii lilies ol 
liistorical value tiiat .should be bi ought to light le- 
corded and preseived for futme generations 

If there are people In Ross county who ha\e .some- 
thing that they feel should have a place in this Ohio 
section of the American Guide they should contact 
Di. Carl Watson state' WPA ndisUiLstratoi with oi- 
rices in the Pure Oil Building, Columbus O 

Discussuig the project, Di Watson saj.s Wc lio))i' 
that all Ohioans will become bettei acquainied uiiii 
what the cultuial projects of WPA aie doing in this 
•slate We believe that those who luiderstand thi.s 
piogiam and the way it is being canied out, wllj agiee 
Iliac it should be continued not alone because of its 
immediate, benefits bui because oi iis long-time \aliin 
to the people of Ohio" 



Chilhcolhe Ntm-fldv(-rtis(r 
«ppil 21 



but the second Negro lesiflc 
Da^ton The first is said 
"Ponipey," sexton at the 
Presbyterian church 

In the yeai 1804, there w<3 
least 17 Negro persons ' " ' 
including children. " 
came as servants. A tew 
Negroes" came from other 
on their own account. I' 
K'ei-e .34 in Dayton, ' 
^d 18,3 4 the Day to 
Ik. a considerable 
rginia and No r„ 
e cooics and y 
packets and \f f ^ 
much attent/^ ~^. 

sa'Sr^^.^^^^-'^' 
^ the ^^J;^fh . 
le Negroy^r^^ th^ 



theie 



Tho. lob of the WPA writets is to discover 
pnn i.'^cord a great deal of uuch niateria'i 
winch, but for their efforts, may disappear 
v/ii.... 'v...^u.ii^lou uocri not want will still bo 
kept ii! local depctito-ies, where it will be 
a".ailablG years hence when some inquirer. 
\'';ints to kjiov. 
^ Indeed, it would not Ite a bad idea to iiave 
^^Qf.- ""'"-'-i^^ ai'd Motatioji mode t\ei> dec ; 
\yfy ^Cq^ ''"un.a i he federal cewmn of in- ' 

'V^ r C ^Q ^J- ' ' i"t'^^ie;,i. vvhicli 







Deadline for 
terial lor the American Guide, j rilon',' Jeff VlL°/»ir'«ft,^Zv'^^^^^^^ 
forthcoming Woi I^s ProK^ss Ad- Counties r^^fiL>^^'^ 't/ . otjUK^^'"/,^ 
ministration travel book, fell Fri- 
day, with information on Alliance i 
and Stark County collected. 

Calvin R. McLean, district 8U-| 
pervisor tor tho work, has had ai 
staff of 65 workers on the assign- , 
ment. Preparation of the guide, 
carried on under the direction of 




Looking For The Records 



"THERE has been a great deal of "louk- 
* ing at the record" throughout the 
land recently but WPA workeifs in Akron 
and the rest of Ohio are soon going to 
start looking for the records. 

A state-wide survey of local historical 
records will soon be undertaken by work- 
ers on the Writer's Project. The work can ; 
be of great value to this community. 

We have neglected our hi.story in 
Akron and Summit County and it may be 
that the WPA chiefs will have to enlist 
detectives as well as less trained searchers ; 
in the hunt for some of the older docu- ' 
ments. 

We~know that they could find some 
of them In t*ie Western Reserve Historical 
Society at Cleveland and more In the 
Ohio Historical and^ehaeological library 
at Columbus. Bcq0lSe Akron in the past 
was not much concerned about its history, 
many valuable historical documents relat- 
ing to this community have been taken 
from us 

The new project, unfortunately, deals 
only with the official records that are still 
in the hands of public officials. We re- 
gret that it was not expanded to permit 
a search for and listing of the important 
historical documents now In private hands. 

The survey workers will list the nature 
and location of all the records and docu- 
ments in the hands of public officers This 
should provide a start for a more exten- 
sive survey to locate Important data now 
In the possession of private individuals. 

The Summit County Historical Society 
is still working on "the commendable job 
of restoring the Old Stone School and 
when the restoration work on this land- 
mark of an earlier day Is completed, the 
old school, should provide a proper museum 
for the preservation of valuable historical 
records 

Our community Is rich In history and 
it is communal neglfgence to allow the 
records of our past to gather dust, hidden 
away in dark storerooms 



0kron Timts-Prtss 



OUI CUltl 

find ii 
auk with 
:lui;c siK'h 
kiidc' wi 
III have a 
hcif in lilt 

oducts to 
project." 
Work I'ro 



1 the s 



ial 



ilumbtis i 
e, bundle 
ikI cousuI 
en co-op 
)rogram, 
mmunitic! 
cal histor 
iteer asso- 
)d towns, 
hunts ha 
le .schoc 
n English 
n Uu- wo: 



Case 4, a young woman in Marion 
had never touched a typewriter until she 
was employed on the Writers* Project, 
She has become so proficient that the 
editor of aMarion newspaper has offered 
her a permanent position. 

Case 5^ had once been a successful 
auditor. With the depression came fi- 
nancial reverses and the loss of his job. 
He was placed on the Writers' Project as 
a reporter interpreting industrial and 
commercial data for the Guide, which led 
to re-employment in the payroll depart- 
ment of the city administration. As a 
reporter he had developed a special tech- 
nique for present ing statistics i n an in- 
teresting and readable form. 

Others, handicapped by i I I health 
or physical afflictions, are gaining a 
new lease on life through the work pro- 
vided by this program. 

For example, there are the two bl ind 
workers on the Writers' Project in Columbus^ 
who have attracted attention by the 
excellence of their wor k as reporters 
for the Guide. On relief, and finding 
employment an impossibility, they were 
recommended to the Writers' Project by 
the Ohio Commission for the Blind. Us- 
ing a system of Braille shorthand, these 
two blind reporters have been given as- 
signments as di fficu It as those given to 
others on the project and have done their 
work as efficiently as any. Notes are 
taken by Braille and later typed by the 
two workers and compiled into narrative 
form, the same procedure fol lowed by other 
/orkers. It is probable that their work 
o the Writers' Project will lead to per- 
manent employment. Such work as this fs 
noteworthy because i t hel ps to prove that 
the blind, despite their handicaps, can 
support themselves. 

Other instances in which talented 
individuals have been trained for re- 
employment and given renewed hope through 
the Ohio Guide project could be cited. 
Thus, \(\ providing the citizens of Ohio 
with an authori tati ve Guide to their own 
state, these workers are in addition, 
developin:! their talents and laying the 



foundation for future employment in pri- 
vate industry. 

In addition to the Ohio Guide and 
the Ohio section of the American Guide, 
several other important reference works 
are being planned for publ icat ion by the 
Waiters' Project. These books will pro- 
vide detai led and special ized sources of 
information concerning the geography, 
history and culture of the state. 

Supplementary volumes i nclude City 
and County Guides and such titles as: a 
State Atlas; a History of the Kegro Race 
in Ohio; ^^n Ohio Bibliography; a History 
of Ceramics in Ohio; Historical Oddities; 
Ohio Customs^ Folk Lore and Legends; 
Historical Chronology and flistorical 
Readers^ for use in the public schools; 
Ohio Architecture and Religious Sects in 
Ohio. 

City Guides are being planned for 
cities of any size or importance, among 
them Cleveland, Cincinnati, Toledo, Col- 
umbus, Akron, Dayton, Youngstown^ Canton, 
Springfield, Chillicothe, Lima, Ma- 
rietta, Warren, Zanesvi I le, Mansfield and 
Sandusky. County Guides are being ar- 
ranged for other somewhat smal lerand less 
densely popul ated areas. Because of the ac- 
knowledged scarcity of recent and re- 
liable local histories, these guides wi I I 
prove a valuable source of a I I information 
desifed by the student about specific 
communities in Ohio. 

In the State Atlas, designed es- 
pecial ly for public schools, there will 
be complete maps of every county as well 
as maps of the larger cities. The Atlas 
will also contain a complete I ist of place 
names in Ohio ~ embracing e^^ery city, 
town and village in the entire state. 

Another volume devoted to Ohio Art 
will be the book on Ohio Architecture, 
from the earl lest types to the most mod- 
ern, including the descri ption of private 
homes, public and business structures, 
as we I I as ful I accounts of fami I iar land- 
marks in the development of Ohio Archi- 
tecture. Something of the nature of the 
vol ume on architecture may be gl eaned from 
the following extracts: 



40 



"The Post Colonial sty te^ an after- 
math of the Colonial as practiced in New 
England, was introduced early because of 
the simplicity of its construction. Es- 
pecially fine examples of this type of 
archi tecture were the meeting houses with 
towers recalling the Christopher Wren 
type. , .The Congregat iona I church at Tal I - 
madge built by Colonel Lemuel Porter, and 
still standing in the central commons of 
this town, is a splendid example of this 
period. 

"The Georgian style, developed In 
England, soon spread to America and was 
practiced in the southern colonies. We 
find therefore some very interesting ex- 
amples of this style in southcentral Ohio, 
part of which at one time constituted the 
Virginia Military Land Grant. Typical 
examples aretheold Renick house (1832) 
located between Circleville and Chilli- 
cothe, the Reeves home in Lancaster ( I 833 ) 
and the Buckingham house in Newark. 

"Ohio perhaps more than any other 
state has made use of the jeffersonian 
American Classic revival architecture, 
particularly in its public buildings. 
This movement is still reflected in the 
State Office Bui I ding at Columbus (1931) 
which may be called a modified Modern 
Classic." 

"A form of Victorian-Gothic some- 
times ca I led the Genera I Grant style and 
the French Mansard style were practiced 
immediately following the Civil War. 
Bizarre ornamentation, excessive use of 
towers, high roofs, heavy cornices and 
bulky doors and window frames mark this 
style. 

"Lead! ng examples of the skyscraper 
style are the American Insurance Build- 
ing, Columbus, whose graceful tower rises 
to 555 ft., and the Terminal Tower at 
Cleveland. The ul t ra-modern tendency of 
architecture inOhio Is best exemplified 
in the new Cincinnati Union Terminal com- 
pleted in 1933, 

"Interest in education in Ohio Is 
reflected in many well planned, artis- 
tically executed city high schools and 
colleges. The University of Toledo is 



ndtable asone of the finest in the state 
architectural ly. 

"in some places the irregular to- 
pography of the surface of the state is 
quite marked and helps to enhance the 
settings of domestic architecture. Sub- 
urban districts artificially laid out 
make many of the cities of Ohio outstand- 
ing in the country. 

"Rapid strides in Ohio architecture 
has been made In the last few decades. 
Ohio has been developing her own, archi- 
tects inherstate unl vers! ties .. .One of 
her most notable sons was Cass Gilbert, 
born in Zanesvi I I e, who designed the great 
Woolworth Building In New York City."* 

Every example of the different 
stages In the development of Ohio archi- 
tecture will be listed alphabetically 
under sub-headings inci uding educational, 
public, industrial, hospital and private 
residential buildings. Examples of Ohio 
architecture and of the men or buildings 
giving distinction to each phase are 
quoted specifically. 

A significant and important work 
will be done in compiling a History of 
the Negro Race in Ohio. This book wilt 
be the first account of the life and cus- 
toms of the Negro in this state and will 
constitute the only known reference work 
on the subject. It wl I I trace faithful ly 
the history of the negro, giving biog- 
raphies of Important figures and showing 
the cultural and economic development of 
the race as a whole. Such a ptibllcatlon 
should serve to give a far greater In- 
sight Into the social and econonilc prob- 
lems of the Negro In Ohio today. Many 
Incidents were unearthed quite by ace in- 
dent, as witnessthlsfol lowing taleofthe 
Underground Railway byaGuide worker in 
Athens. 

"Farmer Jones was a criminal . Jones 
during the day, tl I led a placid homestead 
near Albany, In Athens County, but with 
•nightfal I the stol id-seem i ng house became 
a refuge for slaves fleeing for freedom 
from southern plantations. So although 
Farmer Jones was a God-fearing, lawful, 
tax-paying soul , his home was an Int regal 



41 



link In that great pre-Cfvll War trans- 
portation system, the famed, myriad- 
chained Underground Railway, and to har- 
bor an escaping Negro was an offense 
punishable by law. 

"Legal trivialities, however, meant 
little to Jones ;more than citizen and 
farmer, he was an abol It i oni st, a human- 
itarian unknown - and undoubtedly thaokr- 
ful In more waysthan onefor that fact. 

"A smal I town carpenter with a nose 
for mystery and a knowledge of history 
unearthed the exciting story behind the 
prosaic front of the sti 1 1 standing Jones 
home. Doing a safety inspect ion job, the 
carpenter uncovered a loose beam where 
all good building I aw called for a tightly 
fastened one. Snapped open, the beam dis- 
closed a rectangular cellar where slaves 
were packed whi I e they awaited the signal 
to continue their journey from human 
bondage. " 

Because Ohio, especial ly the sec- 
tion in and around Cincinnati, was a hot- 
bed of ant l-slavery sentiment, thevolume 
on Negro History wl I I abound with the type 
of Interesting narrative quoted above. 
There will be an account of Levi Coffin 
of Cincinnati, unofficial president of 
the Underground Railway. 

How an English gentlemen was re- 
sponsible for the first Negro colony In 
Ohio was discovered by a Highland County 
Guide worker. Samuel Gist, the man In 
question, owned extensive acres In Vir- 
ginia and dl rected In his will that after 
his death all of his property should be 
sold and the money used to buy land for 
his slaves. 

What progress has the Negromadein 
Ohio since Emanc I pat Ion? What Is his chief 
mode of earning a living? What are the 
problems connected with adjusting h im to 
our social scheme? These a re all pertinent 
questions; the volume on Negro History 
will answer them as fully as possible. 

Two other prospect I ve pub 1 1 cations 
of theWrJters' Project ~ *^Ohio Customs, 
Folk Lore and Legends^ " and "Historical 
Oddities" — will be of Interest to the 
casual reader as well as to the student 



of Ohio history. Project workers have 
gathered tremendous masses of material 
for these two pub I i cat ions. The soil of 
Ohio Is rich with the dust of dead heroes 
and history makers; count i es abound with 
deep seated tradition and custom. Pic- 
turesque legends and odd superstitions 
form a background forOhio culture. The 
two pub I icat Ions wi I I serve the purposeof 
making Ohioans familiar with some of the 
hitherto misunderstood phases of this 
background. — - 

Librarians, students and scholars 
will be served by the Ohio Bibliography 
In which will be listed every known his- 
torical, biographical, scientific and 
cultural reference to the state. 



The completion of the Ohio Guide, 
local Guides and specialized works will 
provide Ohioans with what amounts to the 
most accurate and extensi ve encyclopedia 
of their own state ever published. The 
historical and geographical information 
found In these volumes should serve to 
double the interest and enjoyment of 
Ohioans in travel Ina and In reviewing the 
history and culture of the I r native state. 




42 



THE SURVEY OF STATE AND LOCAL HISTORICAL RECORDS. 



Begun January 1936, as a division 
of the Wrlter«s Projects, the Historical 
Records Survey^under the technical super-, 
vision of Dr. William D. Overman, State 
Archivist Is devoted to discovering^ pre- 
serving and making accessible the basic 
materials for research In the history of 
our country. 

Now more than 3,000 workers In all 
of the 48 states are employed In this 
gigantic task, which, when compi eted^wl 1 1 
make available a complete Inventory of 
county, municipal and state historical 
records - forming a valuable source of 
reference for historians, educators, 
statisticians and research workers. In 
addition to state and local government 
records, inventories are being made of 
historical manuscript collections, and 
the records of churches, labor organ- 
izations and lodges. 

The data collected by Historical 
Records workers will be utilized on a 
national scale in the Guide toHistorical 
Collections and in themaster inventories 
compiled In Washington from state mate- 
rial. This Information wilt prove of 
value in checking documents such as wi I Is, 
deeds, and transfers of property, in that 
It wi I I effect a great saving of time and 
will savethe expense of hi ring an expert 
for such work. 

The Historical Records Survey 
started to operate In Ohio soon after 
February I, when Dr. WIHlam D. Overman, 
State Archivist and Curator of History 
at the Ohio Archaeological and Historical 
Museum, was placed in charge as Assist- 
ant Supervisor, with assistants dl recting 
the work in each WPA district under the 
District Supervisor of Writers' Projects. 
By April 245 workers were employed on the 
Survey in 86 of Ohio's 88 counties. 

In June there were approximately 
330 workers on Records Survey projects 
inthestate, including among themawide 
variety of professions, journal i sts, his- 
torians, librarians, research workers, 
clerical and stenographic assistants. 



They have already completed listing 75 
percent of the county archives, 50 per- 
cent of the municipal records, 25 percent 
of the other local records and 20 percent 
of the known manuscript col lections. By 
June 8,000 records survey fo rms we re com- 
pleted, evidence of the rapid, efficient 
mdinner In which this valuable group of 
projects is progressing. 

Work procedure on the Survey is in- 
tricate, and the workers have been pain- 
staking In fi I I Ing out the forms requi red 
for making the Inventories. After a com- 
plete list of the depositories of records 
has been made and cooperation arranged 
with archivists and custodians, workers 
are assigned to the various institutions 
In pairs -one to obtain the data - the 
other to make the record. They are sup- 
plied with mimeographed forms for 
printed records, volumes, unbound records, 
papers, maps and photographs, paintings 
and statuary, manuscript collections, 
and Individual manuscripts. 

Beginning in the room where the most 
important records are kept^ the workers 
start I Isting those which are most recent, 
filling out a separate form for each type 
of records. From here, the workers prog- 
ress to older records, taking extreme 
care to see that no materials are over- 
looked. 

After the forms have been completed 
they are checked for accuracy by the Re- 
search Editor and his assistants. Five 
copies are typed, one being sent to the 
National Supervisor in Washington, two 
placed in the County Files, one In the 
Forms Fi le. 

Accuracy is the keynote of the His- 
torical Records Survey. Great precaution 
is taken to be sure that all collected 
data iswithout error. Theworkers check 
each form after it has been filled out 
and indicate wherever a fact is doubtful. 

After the survey of records is com- 
pleted a guide to the public archives of 
Ohio will be published, containing al I of 



43 



the Information on Ohio records which 
has been gathered by Survey workers ♦ Such 
a book will be an invaluable aid to the 
research worker in locating obscure mate- 




rial which he might not otherwise be able 
to find. 

Materials collected in the states 
witl be compiled intoa nat ion-wide Digest 
of Public Records, a government publi- 
cation which will constitute a complete 
source of reference of historical col lec- 
tions in the United States. 

At the present time the Historical 
Records Survey in Ohio is conducting an 
inventory of church records. A repre- 
sentat i ve group of Oh io's leadi ng cl ergy- 
men, of many denominations, will act in 
the capacity of a special advisory com- 
mittee for this work» 

The value of the Records Survey to 
students of sociology, economics and 
poll tical science, as well as to students 
of history, has been shown already by the 
number of inquiries recei ved f rom peop I e 
who are interested in locating historical 
material • For instance, there was the 
student at Ohio State University who was 
writing a dessertation for her doctor's 
degree, on "The Social Movement across 
Ohio." When she asked or. Overman whether 
there was any materi a I aval I ab le concern- 



ing the earli est county fai rs, he was able 
to tell her that a large amount of this 
material was in the public archives, and 
to explain to her that the most important 



Timely discovery 
of termi te s 
in this book 

saved thousands 

of other 
volumes in 
Akron '5 
county court house 



source of material on local history was 
to be found in these records. 

Not only is the Survey bringing to 
light many hitherto unknown sources of 
reference, but it is also doing much to 
assist in the preservation of valuable 
records. Recently in the Summit county 
courthouse the presence of termites was 
discovered and brought to the attention 
of the local officials when a Survey 
wo rke r t r i ed to remove a heavy vo I ume f rom 
a shelf where it had been undi sturbed for 
years. Finally jerking the book loose, 
the worker found that it was completely 
hoi lowed out by termites. The Courthouse 

attaches stated that u I timate damages to 
the archives and even the internal struc- 
ture of the building might have been i r- 
reparablen As a result of the worker's 
discovery steps were taken toavert fur- 
ther damage. 

In another case, at Warren, the 

Historical Records Survey was instru- 
mental in preserving tons of documents, 
which were found piled carelessly in an 
unfinished attic. The material was in- 
ventoried and arranged inorderly fashion^ 



44 



after the good work of the Survey prompted 
the authorities to appropriate $400 for 
proper filing facilities. 

The following is a letter received 
by the Supervi so r of Writers' Projects i n 
District #13 from the Auditor of Al len 
County^ regard i ng the meri t of the Hi stor- 
ical Records Survey: 

"An old r«cord that on« of your 
writers un«arth«d In tho A|t«n County 
Courthouse nadt At stop and think just 
what that project has ntaant to Allan 
County; so I am taking tt«« out long 
enough to wr Ite you In regard to this work* 

"Not a day passed, prior to this 
workfbut some one was In the office look- 
ing up old records; generally It was a 



long and tiring search ending In dis- 
appointment. Since the work has been com> 
p leted f we have been able to locate those 
old records and furnish much va luab le In- 
formation to the public In general, 

*t want to thank you or whoever was 
the Instigator of this project| and I 
assure you that It was something that ^as 
wel I worth whl le.** 

Through the interest aroused in 
local history by the Survey, movements 
are under way at Portsmouth and Findlay 
to form permanent local societies for pre- 
serving records of hi stori cal interest - 
another evidence of the enduring value 




Condition of records in the Lawrence County Court Route 

before the Records Survey Began 



45 



W. p. A. CULTURAL PROGRAM IN OTHER STATES, 



With only a few exceptions, 48 
states In the Union are carrying on a 
cultural program simi lar to that in Oh io. 
These exceptions are found in art, in 
music, and in the theatre, in those states 
where relief rolls d isc I osed an insuffi- 
cient number of artists, musicians and 
actors on relief rolls to justify that 
type of project. The following summary of 
Federal Project Number One act I vit ies In 
other states, although hardly complete, 
presents at least an accurate view of the 
scope of their programs: 

WRITERS' PROJECTS 

All states, are making a study of 
tours by automobi le, railroad, bus, boat 
and foot. Special studies of primitive 
conditions are b^lng made In Utah, where 
a large part of the state consists of 
Goyerhment Parks-. Some of these are as 
primitive as the Great Smoky Mountains 
Park of North Carpi ina and Tennessee. 
In Wyoming, intensive study has been de- 
voted to the deposits of pre-historic 
animal remains. Wyoming and North Dakota 
have been making a special study of the 
Oregon Trail and the life story of Saca- 
jawea,,the squaw who guided and inter- 
preted for the Lewis and Clark Expedition 
of 1804. 

The various state organizations 
have discovered many Interesting docu- 
ments which had been thought lost. For 
instance. Professor Roland P. Gray, New 
York State Research Editor, discovered 
in a bank vault at Dryden, New York, the 
speech made by Abraham Lincoln at the 
White House on November 10, 1864, at the 
celebration of his re-^e lection to the 
presidency. 

In St. Louis, writers have brought 
to light and have had photostated the 
legal papers which were fi led In the Dred 
Scott case, th^ey were being thumbed to 
rags by the lawyers and clerks running 
through them and would soon have been 
lost to research workers. 

In the states where English-speak- 
ing peoples have succeeded other races, 
historical documents in Dutch, French and 
Spanish are being translated by project 
workers, for the benefit of historians 
and research students. Other special 



state studies follow: 

Hew York - A study Is being made 
of racial groups and their special con- 
tributions to American culture. 

Pennsylvania - A special study of 
folklore is being made. 

Indiana - Pre pa rat Ion of h istor ica I 
markers for all parts of the state. 

Wisconsin - A folklore study. 

THEATRE 

Less than ayear ago. In 31 states, 
unemployment In the theatre arts existed 
to such an extent that projects were set 
up as hastily as possible. In many of 
these states, of course, there are a 
number of projects; New York City, with 
5,000 on the payroll, has 31 producing 
units. 

Thus far the majority of plays 
planned forand produced on Federal Stages 
are from the c lassies and from nineteenth 
century America. Dramas which have had 
a part in American theatrical history are 
popular, Chicago and Calffornla each hav- 
ing one unit devoted exclusively to the 
production of such theatrical mf le-stones 
as Under Two Flags, Shenandoah and The 
Old Homestead. The intent Is to produce 
these plays not as burlesque revivals, 
but to convey to audiences the values 
which made the plays favorites of earlier 
generations. 

Certain areas are play ing up their 
local dramatists: Indiana offers The 
Hoosier Schoolmaster and plays by Booth 
Tarkington; New England is producing 
Valley Forge and Barbara Fritchie: Oak- 
land, Cal Ifornia Is doing a weekly commedia 
dell 'arte sketch on some phase of Cali- 
fornia history with the intention of 
evolving a play on California. 

One of the most interesting of the 
Pennsylvania units Is working on dra- 
matic material from Pennsylvania Dutch 
Fo I k I o re . 

Racial groups are doing plays of 
their own literatures; Negro companies 
in Seattle, Los Angeles, New York and 
Chicago have offered : Por^ry, Walk Togeth^ 
er Chillun, Brother Nose a^nd Macbeth with 
the scene laid in Haiti and the witch 



46 



scenes played as voodoo. The Yiddish 
group InCal ifornia has done Uriel Acosta, 
the New York Anglo-Jewish group opened 
with The Idle Inn, and the Florida Ital ian 
group Is doing Italian opera. 

It is believed that one function 
ofany living theatre is to try to create 
plays; with that end in view, a number of 
American plays are now being written on 
the project: Samuel Adams, by Robert Al len 
of the Boston project; This Is My Country, 
a study of the Alamo and its relation to 
Texan Independence, by the staff of the 
Texas unit; Davy Crockett by John Lyman 
of the New York project; and Cho Cho, a 
play about America's famous clowns, by a 
unit in Oakland, Gall fo mi a. 

It will be noted that there is a 
decided emphasis, particularly in the new 
plays being written by individuals or 
groups, on American material. This seems 
to come about naturally, but it Is also 
a definite policy of the project to en- 
courage a study of the little-explored 
American scene, past and present. 

Vaudeville units were among the 
first to get under way, and have been 
actively operating, playing to large au- 
diences continuously since the days of 
the CWA theatre units. There Is an ex- 
tensive New England circuit, a Chicago 
Park circuit, and other units in ty%ry 
state in which theatre projects are In 
operation. 

The vaudeville units play chiefly 
in CCC and transient camps, in under- 
privileged districts, in state Institu- 
tions such as hospitals, prisons, reform- 
atories and asylums for the young and 
old. In Massachusetts alone, between 70 
and 80 such free performances are given 
each week. 

New York State has a cf reus project, 
holdover from CWA, whose popularity has 
not diminished even with the inauguration 
of nominal admission fees. 

Original and amusing work Is being 
done on marionette projects throughout 
the country; San Francisco has done a 
number of old standbys; Los Angeles, in 
a company billing itself as "not only 



for children", has played Don Quixote 
and Genesis. New Jersey has produced an 
original adaptation of 4iaddi«. New York 
City's marionettes have had extensive 
bookings for half a dozen shows; Buffalo 
Negro marionettes play to large school and 
social settlement audiences In original 
historical plays. Ph I lade I phi a companies 
jump from Faust to Hansel And Gretel and 
thence to Little Black Sambo. The group 
Is having difficulty keeping upwith re*- 
quests from schools and other organiza- 
tions for its original plays on housing, 
crime prevent I on and other modern themes. 

One of the chief alms of the Federal 
Theatre being to re-establish theatre 
workers in fields of usefulness, an im- 
portant phase of the work therefore \s th# 
assignment of unemployed drama teachers 
to meet the constant ly expanding needs of 
recreation programs. The Project has been 
enlarging the scope of this phase of the 
program; representative ones are foimd 
in Connecticut, Chicago, North Carolina, 
Omaha, St. Louis, Oklahoma City and New 
York City. 

Development of the Federal Theatre 
has been immeasurably aided by the active 
interest and advice of sponsoring bodies 
such as schools, colleges, universit- 
ies, churches, women's clubs, urban 
leagues, and other state, courtty and 
civic organizations. 

One project, sponsored by the Un- 
iversity of Southern California, sends 
on tour through the various schools and 
col leges a troupe of professional actors 
trained In a classical repertory decided 
upon mutually by the faculty and theatre 
directors; in Seattle, the University of 
Washington Is sponsoring several proj- 
ects, one of which consists of building 
theatre models showing the development 
of the stage. 

ART 

The 5^000 artists employed on Fed- 
eral Art, demonstrated that the number 
of people vitally affected by their work 
must be reckoned by at least fifty times 
thei r number. 

Hundreds of institutions of a public 
nature, including schools, colleges, 
hospitals and public buildings, have al- 



47 



rB^4y benefitted from the Federal Art 
Project in the form of paint I ngs, murals, 
scul ptures, and drawings. Schools, pub I ic 
museums. National Park Service museums. 
Federal State and municipal educational 
organizations and WPA construction pro- 
jects have been benefitted by charts, 
models and other exhibits furnished them 
by the Federal Art Project. 

In the South, nearly a score of 
experimental demonstration gal leries, 
which it is hoped will eventually become 
regional museums, have been established. 

Possibly the most dramatic and 
picturesque of al I work being done by the 
Federaul Art Project is in the field of 
mural painting, which until WPA had been 
neglected. Many talented young American 
painters have had thei r f i rst opportunity 
at thfs sort of work under the Project. 
About 370 mural projects are now under 
way or completed In schools, colleges, 
libraries and other public buildings in 
e\/ery section of the country. 

The giant undertaking of the Federal 
Art Project, under way now in 20 states. 
Is the Index of American Design, which 
is to be an analogous source-record of 
the rise and devel opment of American de- 
sign up to the 20th century, composed 
of pictures — accurate, documented draw- 
ings in black and white and color — and 
photographs. 

Material compri si ng the Index will 
be supplied by the various local units 
/vorking through art and historical soci- 
ties and vol unteer advisory committees, 
will make accessible an accurate, 
useable record of American design. No 
such compi latlon has ever been undertaken 
before In this country. 

Numerically, the easel painting 
section of the Project the country over 
Is the largest. in New England, in the 
South and In the West, many easel projects 
are painting portraits of distinguished 
personages famous in the history of thei r 
localities. In California, for instance, 
a series of these is being done for the 
Bancroft Library of the University of 



California. The number of canvasses a I 
ready produces runs into the thousands 
and sti I I the demand remains much greats 
than the supply. 

Of interest is the work of t\ 
Graphic Arts sections, especially InNc 
York, Chicago and Philadelphia, whei 
most of the work is done ]n the artist' 
own studio. 

In a number of states artists ha^ 
been engaged in working on illustrate 
campaigns to promote better citizenshif 
publ ic health, and municipa I clean I ines< 
campaigns against vandal ism and disregai 
of public structures and parks; noise 
crime and accident prevention. 

In Oklahoma, the Federal Art Proj 
ect is cooperating with the Tulsa Ai 
Association in the operation of a gal lei 
and educational program planned towai 
the development of a permanent musei 
building and art association. In Si 
Petersburg, Florida, the city counci I ar 
the local art club are cooperat ing i 
initiating a permanent gallery In thei 
community. Attendance at the gallery ha 
averaged more than three thousand weekly 
In Birmingham, Alabama, the Art Projec 
Is furnishing the personnel and super 
vision for a Children's Museum. 

MUSIC PROJECTS 

Approximately 15,000 workers err 
ployed by the Federal Music Project 
throughout the country, include instru 
mentafists, vocalists, composers, teach 
ers, copyists, arrangers, librarians 
tuners and Instrument repairers, and, I 
the Kentucky Hills, a group of mountai 
minstrels charged with the preparatio 
and preservation of indigenous America 
music. 

Evidence of a deep hunger for mus i 
among our peoples is seen in the audlenc 
figures compiled between January | an 
June 30, 1936. With some records miss 
Ing, the figures show that more tha 
20,000,000 people heard the 29,911 con- 
certs given by Federal Music groups dur 
Ing this period; perhaps a third of th 
performances were presented In hospital; 
or other institutions where the attend- 
ance was I imited. 



48 



A vital part of the work of Fed- 
eral Music ts being done by the full 
symphony orchestras which have present- 
ed programs before large audiencjss in 
New Yo rk, Ph I I ade I ph i a, Chi cago^ Ha rt- 
ford, Syracuse, Buffalo, Los Angeles, 
San Diego and Oakland. Concert orches- 
tras presenting symphonic music are 
located in Detroit, Omaha, Minneapolis, 
Providence, Birmingham, Oklahoma City, 
Tampa, Seattle, San Anton io and many other 
cities* 

Dance and theatre orchestras, the 
latter often assigned to work in cooper- 
ation with the Theatre Projects, have 
taken more than 1,000 musicians from re- 
lief rolls. Pittsburgh, like Cleveland, 
hasaGypsy orchestra of 22 pieces which 
is in constant demand for programs of 
czardas and native Gypsy dance music. 

Federal Music groups have been ^ery 
active in opera and choral work. The Los 
Angeles opera unit performed the Tales 



Of Hoffman several times, to a total aud- 
ience of 18,000. Madame Butterfly was 
performed successfully in Massachusetts. 
An open ai r performance of Aida utilized 
Florida's massed choir unit on Easter 
Monday. Four thousand heard The Creation 
in Boston at one performance. The Messiah 
was sung in Los Angeles by a chorus of 
100 negroes. 

Music education work has claimed 
the attention of more than 1,300 teachers 
who are now on Federal Music payrolls. 
Enrollment in teaching and music appre- 
ciation classes in NewYork City increased 
from 29,000 when Federal assistance was 
first made available to 224,000 a month 
later. 

Participation in Spring Music Fes- 
tivals has been a feature of Music Pro- 
ject work during the spring months, when 
music groups in half a dozen states aided 
In making these gatherings a success. 








•^^T"t-r-f/W. 








Ckaraettrs from famous juvenile stories portrayed Cleveland Federal Art Project 



49